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Special IssueFebruary 2002
Each year we at Sandia National Laborato-ries take great pride in cataloguing significantaccomplishments achieved during the pastyear by the men and women who make up thisgreat laboratory. The past year, 2001, wasextraordinary for the diversity and richness of the achievements and for the one day, Septem-ber 11, that so deeply affected and changed ourlaboratory and our nation.Sandia’s staff have rapidly shifted gears toturn up the rate of progress in our nationalsecurity work, suddenly rendered even moreimportant by theinstantaneouschange in thefree world’s secu-rity situationthat occurredthat day. Allacross the Labs,individuals andteams have allmade heroicefforts to extendour technologycontributions toboth better pro-tect our troops and to help win the war againstterrorism. The deep patriotism that inspires allof our laboratory’s work took on monumentalimportance in the days following the terroristattacks, and we are today operating at anunprecedented intensity in increasing the rateof development and deployment of ourunique technologies.While the many hardware products we havedelivered to the Afghanistan front give us spe-cial pride that we are fulfilling our highest goal
“to become the Laboratory that the nationturns to first for technology solutions to theproblems that threaten peace and freedom,”
I am delighted with the richness of the manyaccomplishments, large and small, that wereport this year. Sandia has achieved pioneer-ing accomplishments in so many importantareas of science and technology, from new soft-ware tools that revolutionize the design process,to software systems that vastly improve ourfinancial management; and from creation of classified networks within Sandia to creation of the world
s most powerful network that is nowfurthering the work of all of the NNSA labs. Iinvite you to judge for yourself: Have thisyear
s accomplishments been the best ever inrendering
exceptional service to our nation?
C. Paul RobinsonPresident and DirectorSandia National Laboratories
Labs Accomplishments 2002
Page 2
We created
a highly detailed finite elementmodel of the W76/Mk4 Reentry Body
(over 3million degrees of freedom) using the ASCI codeSALINAS. Model improvements have been madeusing data from validation experiments. Additionalexperiments provided insight into variability indynamic response of these components. We havefound that as-builtdifferences inweapon componentshave a significantimpact on dynamicresponse. The vari-ability data enablestatistical tests of model validationand may also affectderivation of compo-nent environmentalrequirements usedfor design certifica-tion. (9100, 2100)David Claussdbclaus@sandia.gov
The US NavyW76-0/Mk4 JointTest Assembly (JTA)redesign achievedFirst ProductionUnit status
lastAugust, following asuccessful development flight test in February 2000.The redesign replaced sunset technology compo-nents in the existing 20-year-old JTA, which is usedto test the continued conformance of a denuclearizedversion of the War Reserve (WR) warhead. The newJTA collects significantly more state-of-health andcritical performance data from onboard the ReentryBody (RB), as part of the core surveillance program.(1700, 2100, 2500, 2900, 8400, 9100, 12300)Bill Tedeschi, wjtedes@sandia.govA seemingly impossible fabrication task oftenleads to enhanced creativity. The Advanced SystemsGroup 2254, locatedat Livermore, Calif.,expressed the need fora small tube-assemblyconsisting of veryintricate components.A team from center14100 met the follow-ing challenges:
Designand fabricate a tubewithin a tube
(thinwall-thickness); createfeatures of very highaspect ratios (diameterversus length); manu-facture micro-sizegrooves and angledholes (alignment / assembly); assemblecomponents to pro-vide a high-pressureseal (assembly/weld-ing). Lothar Biegs, lfbieg@sandia.gov
Nuclear weapons 
The B83 Systems Engineering group hasc
ompleted development of Alt 355 for the B83Modern Strategic Bomb.
Alt 355 is a near-term fieldretrofit kit that incorporates design modifications tothe present B83-0/1 Gas Transfer System (GTS) hard-ware. It is the first Alt to complete the stringentPhase 6.X process. Also, a series of field tests wereconducted, in conjunction with Alt 355, using twoB83 Transportation Environmental Sampling Units(TESU). Both TESU test units were equipped with adata acquisition system and used to collect vibrationand shock data during a variety of transportationscenarios. The data were used to compare Stockpile-to-Target Sequence specified levels for these environ-ments. The Stockpile-To-Target-Sequence specifiedenvironments were shown to govern and remainunchanged. (2200, 8400, 8700) Thomas Gaffney,tmgaffn@sandia.govLead zirconate-lead titanate (PZT) is a key ceramicused in the production of Neutron Generator powersupplies. With the loss of all external suppliers,
wedeveloped an in-house production-scale process tosupply PZT.
Process development spanned the chemi-cal synthesis of the PZT through powder fabricationprocesses resulting in a fired ceramic. Numerous tech-nical and ES&H hurdles were overcome to scale-up theprocess from the laboratory size to 10 kg productionquantities. MC3422 voltage bars made from the pro-duction-scale processes have met the stringent WarReserve specifications. (14100, 1800, 2500, 9200) SteveLockwood, sjlockw@sandiagovA simulation-based engineering approach thatintegrates research, numerical simulations, code vali-dation experiments, wind tunnel data, and flight testdata was used to quantify B61 spin rate losses due tovortex-fin interactionand to define optimalfin cant angle forB61-3,4,10 ALT354.TAOS spin rate predic-tions, confirmed inflight tests, showed that
the new fin cant angleproduces improved spin rates
when used in con- junction with the existing spin motor. (2100, 9100,15400) Carl Peterson, cwpeter@sandia.govIn support of the FY01 Acclerated Strategic Com-puting Initiative Normal Environment Level 1 Mile-stone, the ALEGRA code development team success-fully completed
calculation of contact fuzeelectromechanical operation
during target impactat termination of flight for a W76 Reentry Body. Thiscalculation showcased the Adaptive Mesh Refine-ment (AMR) and Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE)capabilities of the ALEGRA code. (9200) EdwardBoucheron, eabouch@sandia.govCode Management System (CMS) delivery pro-vides
a significant security
toweapon code operations
in Europe. The CMS pro- ject has completed a four-year full-scale engineeringeffort with its first full system delivery to its DoD cus-tomers. This system enables the recoding of nuclearweapons in a fully encrypted manner and greatlysimplifies use and logistics issues for personnel. Thecomplete system consists of 17 NNSA-qualified prod-ucts, and several commercial computers. (1700,2100, 2500, 2900, 5900, 6500, 12300, 14100) DougClark, jdclark@sandia.gov
HIGH-FIDELITYdynamicsmodel of MC2912.B61 spin-rate test.ALEGRA calculation of pressures and electric fieldsproduced during RB impact and operation ofcontact fuze.TRANSPORTATIONEnvironment Sampling Units loadedon B-2A Rotary Launcher Assembly.AN IMPOSSIBLEfabricationtask? Not at Sandia.
(Continuned on next page)
Shortly after the beginning of each calendar yearthe
 Lab News
sums up Sandia National Laboratories
principal achievements during the previous fiscalyear. This issue of Labs Accomplishments continuesthat tradition.All Sandia divisions
from both the technicaland administrative sides of the house
wereinvited to identify some of their key accomplish-ments from the period of Oct. 1, 2000, throughSept. 30, 2001. Submissions selected by the VPs
offices are presented on the following pages.In reading through the accomplishments, you
llnotice some numbers in parentheses at the end of each entry. Those represent the Sandia center (orcenters) in which most of the work on a particularaccomplishment was done. Also, you
ll note thatmany of the technical accomplishments include akey contact name and e-mail address.The work is presented here by category. We
vefound over time that this organizational approach ishelpful, but it is important to recognize that suchcategorization, particularly in a multiprogram,multidisciplinary laboratory such as Sandia, is tosome extent arbitrary. Much of the work listed in thecategory
Nuclear Weapons,
for example, could veryappropriately have been listed under
Engineering Science,
or any one of a number of other categories. And the converse is certainly true.Indeed, much of the work done across all the Labs
technical divisions supports Sandia
s fundamentalmission-related nuclear weapons work.
A Note to Readers 
To all Sandians: 
Labs Accomplishments 2002
Page 3
Sandia surveillance departments were key partici-pants in the
NNSA Strategic Review of the Surveil-lance Program
(the 150-day study) and major con-tributors to the final report. This study will guide thefuture NNSA Surveillance program whose goals are toensure that no defects in the stockpile go undetected,to uncover precursors of aging early to allow ade-quate time to implement corrective action, and toaddress other vital stockpile isses. The study and itsrecommendations have been accepted by DOE, andan implementation strategy has been developed.(2900) Bill Norris, wlnorri@sandia.govThe B61-4 Type 3E Traineris a system that the US AirForce will use to practice load-ing and handling operations.
The Warhead SimulatorPackage
is a key componentof the Trainer, which simu-lates the electrical functional-ity of a real War Reserveweapon. The new trainer pro-vides a significant improve-ment by allowing DoD per-sonnel to realistically practiceperforming lock/unlock andprelaunch arming/safingoperations without exposinga real nuclear weapon to vul-nerabilities. The First Production Unit of the Trainerhas been delivered. (2100, 2300) James Harrison, jamharr@sandia.govThe Weapons New Hire Orientation Program wasdeveloped to provide a basis for early career develop-ment in the presence of increased hiring. The pro-gram gives new technical hires in the weapons pro-gram
an unclassified basis of knowledge inSandia
s capabilities and missions
, engineeringprocesses, emerging technologies, basics of theDoD/DOE relationship, and national security strat-egy. (2900) John Shaw, jdshaw@sandia.govSandia
s largest construction project, MESA(Microsystems Engineering and Sciences Applica-tions), continues to move at a fast pace, completingpreliminary design in FY01. Six reviews led the wayfor projected approval of the $400 million-plus base-line, authority to proceed to final design, and subpro- ject construction in FY02.
The MESA complex is theheart of Sandia
s investment
in microsystemsresearch, development, and prototyping activities.(1900, 10003, 10505, 10800) Karen Higgins,klhiggi@sandia.govSandia has developed
its first custom micro-processor architecture, the Sandia SecureProcessor
. With emphasis on surety, the design isproceeding with the goal to apply mathematicallyprovable methods for verify-ing flawless, secure operation.Synthesis of the currentmodel has yielded a 50MHzdesign with 40,000 logic ele-ments that is presently under-going extensive testing. Theprocessor is planned for fabri-cation in a rad-hard technol-ogy at Sandia
s Microelectron-ics Development Laboratory.(2100, 1700, 5900) GregWickstrom,glwicks@sandia.govWork was completed toqualify the
B61-11 bomb asmeeting all requirements,resulting in its acceptance as a
standard stock-pile item
for the nuclear deterrent force. In recog-nizing the efforts of the B61-11 certification team,CINCSTRAT cited the weapon
s many advantagesover the retired B53-1 bomb. Also, alterations (ALTs)have been made to enhance the safety and securityof B61 bombs at field locations. B61ALT335/339/354 Production Milestones wereachieved this year with the shipment of kits to sup-port all B61s deployed outside of the US. (2100,2600, 2300, 1800, 9100) James Harrison, jamharr@sandia.govThe EV-C (Escort Vehicle, Class C) developmentteam established signed requirements with NNSA
sOffice of Transportation Safeguards. The develop-ment team competitively selected a manufacturer towork with Honeywell and delivered a working test-bed vehicle. The team also
completed initial com-munications system integration and testing
, proto-typed installation of all hardware and cables, andcontracted for a pre-production unit to be deliveredlast December
all while reducing the overall end-to-end development cycle time by one-third. (5800)Jake Deuel, jkdeuel@sandia.govEmerging microsystem technologies are beingexplored to improve the nuclear weapon stockpile byenhancing existing systems and enabling new systemarchitectures.
Sandia successfully built the first of aseries of product vehicles
that will focus the matu-ration of war reserve-quality microsystem technolo-gies and engineering methods. We demonstratedcommon hermetic packaging for mechanical, electri-cal, and optical microcomponents, precison align-ment of optics and a SUMMiT
micromachine, dieattach, wirebonding, multi-level electrical intercon-nects, and process integration of the above. (1700,2300, 2600, 2900, 9100, 12300, 14000, 15300)Frank Peter, fjpeter@sandia.gov
In December 2000, NASA launched the Sandia-developed Laser Dynamic Range Imager (LDRI) onthe Space Shuttle Endeavor to assess the structuraldynamics of the International Space Station (ISS).The 3-D LDRI images measured vibration of theISS during thruster firing for validation of the ISSoperational model and expected lifetime.
Sandiaachieved major innovations in 3-D imagingtechnology to meet NASA flight requirements,
including a 5-lb weight and sub-centimeter resolu-tion from a 30m standoff distance. NASA is con-sidering the LDRI technology for future missionsrequirements in rendezvous and docking andproximity operations. (2600) Colin Smithpeter,csmithp@sandia.govThe Sandia-developed robotic Weigh and Leak-Check System passed a final DOE review, moved aW80 pit in a laboratory at Pantex, and becamefully operational for handling nuclear weaponspits. This event marked
the first time a pit hadever been lifted by something other thanhuman hands.
Use of the automated system allbut eliminates human exposure to radiation.Sandia designed, developed, installed, integrated,and tested the robotic system, including safetyfeatures necessary to operate safely and reliably.(15200) William Drotning, Drotning@sandia.govWe completed engineering and modifications,shipped, and installed
one of the world
s largestrobot systems
for Lockheed Martin AeronauticsCompany (LMAC) in Marietta, Ga., to implementrobotic coating technology for the F-22 fighterweapon system. The Large Aircraft Robotic Paint-ing System for F-22s was converted at Sandia forcoating applications in hazardous environmentsand installed at LMAC. We also developed andtested advanced software algorithms that dramati-cally improved the motion performance of this 9-axis, 27-foot-tall, 35-ton robot. (15200) WilliamDrotning, drotning@sandia.govMEMS devices that
of the fabricationplane and can be controlled to move along anyarbitrary, three-dimensional path in space willenable a host of new products and technologies
particularly in electronic imaging and telecommu-nication systems. A variety of 
microscopic paral-lel kinematic mechanisms have been designedand built using the SUMMiT-V
Theytake up 1-3mm
of chip area and can produce dif-ferent types of motion, including XYZ translation,piston-tip-tilt, or spherical. Motion is controlledby three linear stepper motors (2-micron mini-mum step). (14100, 1700) Bernie Jokielbjokie@sandia.govThe Defense Ammunition Center has fundedSandia for two
robotic disassembly systemsbased on technologies developed under theDOE/DoD Memorandum of Understanding
pro-gram. The first system, which disassembles a pro- jectile containing 36 mines, will be part of a newMunitions Demilitarization Cryofracture Facilityunder construction at the McAlester Army Ammu-nition Plant. The second system will disassemble8-inch Rocket-Assisted Projectiles at the Blue GrassArmy Depot. These systems will remove peoplefrom potentially fatal hazards that occur annuallyin a worldwide industry. Walter Wapman,wwapman@sandia.govThe Z-Beamlet Laser (ZBL), one of the largestpulsed lasers in the world, is Sandia
s most recentenhancement of the Z Machine, the most power-ful electrical device on earth. ZBL provides scien-tists from around the world with
a state-of-the-artdiagnostic tool to take X-ray pictures of matterunder extreme conditions
of temperature anddensity. The $12.875 million project to constructZBL was a multiyear collaborative effort betweenSandia and Lawrence Livermore NationalLaboratory. (1600) John Porter, jlporte@sandia.govA
new Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF),Bldg. 6586, opened in FY01.
Following separatepre-operational reviews by both Sandia and DOE,approximately 80,000 curies of Co-60 were safelytransferred into an 80,400-gallon water tank at thefacility in late January 2001. In March, DOEauthorized the facility to begin operations. Subse-quently, a variety of radiation-hardness testing hasbeen performed on nuclear weapons componentsand on circuits for the International Space Station,space communication satellites, and militaryavionics. (6400) Donald T. Berrydtberry@sandia.govA Defense Threat Reduction Agency-fundedproject to investigate the use of high performancecomputing to design radiation-hardened DoD sys-tems was successfully concluded.
A prototypeweb-based tool that a satellite designer coulduse to perform high-fidelity 3-D radiation trans-port analysis
was demonstrated. The tool showedhow teraflop-class software and hardware could beused to decrease costly over-conservatism indesign for nuclear survivability. (15300, 9200,6400) Len Lorence, ljloren@sandia.gov
Electronics, robotics, and pulsed power 
MEMS XYZ translation only spatial positioner inSUMMiT-V™.
Nuclear weapons 
(Continued from preceding page)
The B61-4 Type 3E training system.ARTIST’S RENDERING of MESA project.
(Continuned on next page)

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