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Animation (PDF)

Animation (PDF)

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Published by Jay
The history of animation
The history of animation

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Published by: Jay on Oct 30, 2011
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Jay Smith Animation Research S0045090
Animation HistoryTo begin talking about animation we have to go back in time to truly understand howanimation works, Since the beginning of time, humans have tried to capture some sort of motion in their art work. Animation cannot be achieved without firstly understanding thefundamental principles of the human eye, this is what is called “the persistence of vision”meaning is were we cannot see the gap of a film or animation between the frames, as it'sprojected on the screen, we mostly see it as a continuous flow. this is usually done byplacing the images together to make continuous movements, there are usually 24 imagesper second during the sequences in the film or animation.The persistence of vision was first introduced by Paul Roget in 1982,and was the proud inverter of the “thaumatrope”, it was made up witha piece of disc and string with on one side would be the bird and onthe other side of the disc there would be a bird cage, as the discwould spin it would seem that the bird would appear in the cage. Thismethod proved that the human eye retains images when it isexposed to a series of images one at a time. As the thaumatropewas such a great achievement to how animation worked two other invention were introduced “the phenakistoscope” which wasintroduced by Josheph Plateau in 1826, the phenakistoscop was a circular card withseveral slits around the edges, the viewer would hold the card up into a mirror and thenwould start peering through the slits as the card would spin, as the viewer would lookthough the slits it would come clear to them that the images would beresulting in some sort of motion. This same method was used in “thezoetrope” that was invented by Pierre Desvignes in 1860. The zoetrope isa strip of card that in bent in a shape of a cylinder, which contain somesort of drawings in the inside, then as the cylinder rotates on a spindlethe viewer would then took through the slot at the top of the cylinder, asthis is going on the cylinder rotates the drawing inside that would thencreate a motion that would endlessly in a loop and loop .As animation slowly started to progress and rise to fame, it was not tillthe early twenties when animated cartoons was on the declinedmovie exhibitors were looking for an alternative entertainment in themedia. The art of animation could accomplish was not yet clearlyrelevant in this period of time, except for the work of Winsor McCaywith his animation “Gertie the Dinosaur 1924”. this piece of animationwas one of McCay's biggest accomplishments due to the fact thatMcCay had developed a character within a dinosaur that had beenseen in a previous animation “Felix the Cat” that was deveoped byOtto Messmer which appeared in Feline Follies 1919. McCay's Gertiethe Dinosaur had a major impact on the audience. The impression of the dinosaur coming to life on a screen that the audience was amazed by, from all of theearlier animation “Felix the Cat” had made the most Impact on screen personality wise, butyet failed to develop any further, relying on crude visual tricks to entertain the viewers asoppsed to develop a stronger screen persona.
Jay Smith Animation Research S0045090
At this time many animation were based on gags and violence, which is still true to thecartoons we have now a days such as “Ichy and Scratchy”, one character would beat theother character continuously only to have the other character recover and then wouldreturn the favour, as in this case Ichy would torture Scratchy in many brutal ways only tohave Scratchy reappear as if he was magically unharmed.Computer Generated Imagery HistoryAs 2D animation started to progress in hand drawings, it wasn’t till 1973 when 2D CGI wasbeing more frequently used , this technique made it possible to quickly and easily tocounter problems caused by the the traditional mode of animating. This technique cutdown on the production time of an animation, as now animators only needed to animate akey frame and the computer would fill in the rest, not only did computers help in the waythat animation is done, it also create a new type of genre of animation. Most CGIanimation movies we have now a days like Toy Story, A Bugs Life and Antz that were alldone by Disney and Pixar and produced by Dreamworks, that is only just the start of computer animation, with computer animation it made it possible for almost anyone tocreate their own piece of animation.It wasn't till 1967 when the first computer generated animation was introduced in Britain byTony Pritchett with “The Flexipede” the short animation was only 16 minutes long and thatwas in plain black and white, that consisted of a centipede moving in and out of thescreen. The Flexipede was made on the University of London's Atias computer using aprogramme called “autocode”. The Flexipede soundtrack was produced by using foleysounds, which are sounds effects usually are added to a film or animation during the postproduction, Foley sounds is a technique that is used for synchronizing life sounds with thecaptured footage in screen.
Jay Smith Animation Research S0045090
Before computer generated imagery came along it took money, special equipment andincredible amount of talent and patience to create an animation, the history of CGIanimation dates back to 40 years ago when the first ever computer drawing system wasdesigned. Design augmented by computers (DAC) is one of the earliest graphicalcomputer aided design system that was developed by General Motors, this systemallowed the user to view any sort of 3D model and change the angles and the rotations of the view. Dating back to 1961 MIT student (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) IvanSutherland created an outstanding piece of software that many years later many other graphic software designers would base their software in this and it was known as “TheSketchpad. This software primarily allowed you to draw any sort of figure directly on to acomputer screen with a light pen, this technique is used the same way as we use theGraphic Tablet now a days.It wasn’t till the 1980s were a popular film known as “Star wars Empire Strikes Back” wasreleased that had one of the most influential computer animation graphics that wasstarted. George Lucas an American film producer, screenwriter and director, also proudfounder and chairman of Lucasfilm. Started to recruit CGI specialist in order to create ancomputer animation section within his company. The result in this was “Industrial Light andMagic” a team that soon began producing special CGI effects for films and animation, it isIndustrial Light and Magic that produced the CGI effects for films such as Indiana Jonesand the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull 2008, The Iron man franchise 2008/2010,Transformers franchise 2007/2009, Star Wars: Episode III Revenge of the Sith 2005 andmany more.

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