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Chapter 5. Principles of Random Variables and Processes 105
Introduction
1.1 What is a Smart Antenna?
1.2 Why are Smart Antennas Emerging Now?
1.3 What are the Beneﬁts of Smart Antennas?
1.4 Smart Antennas Involve Many Disciplines
1.5 Overview of the Book
References
Fundamentals of Electromagnetic Fields
2.1 Maxwell’s Equations
2.2 The Helmholtz Wave Equation
2.3 Propagation in Rectangular Coordinates
2.4 Propagation in Spherical Coordinates
2.5 Electric Field Boundary Conditions
2.6 Magnetic Field Boundary Conditions
2.7 Planewave Reﬂection and Transmission Coefﬁcients
2.7.1 Normal incidence
2.7.2 Oblique incidence
2.8 Propagation Over Flat Earth
2.9 Knife-Edge Diffraction
Problems
Antenna Fundamentals
3.1 Antenna Field Regions
3.2 Power Density
3.4 Basic Antenna Nomenclature
3.4.1 Antenna pattern
3.4.2 Antenna boresight
3.4.3 Principal plane patterns
3.4.4 Beamwidth
3.4.5 Directivity
3.4.6 Beam solid angle
3.4.7 Gain
3.4.8 Effective aperture
3.5 Friis Transmission Formula
3.6 Magnetic Vector Potential and the Far Field
3.7 Linear Antennas
3.7.1 Inﬁnitesimal dipole
3.7.2 Finite length dipole
3.8 Loop Antennas
3.8.1 Loop of constant phasor current
Array Fundamentals
4.1 Linear Arrays
4.1.1 Two element array
4.1.2 Uniform N-element linear array
4.1.3 Uniform N-element linear array directivity
4.2 Array Weighting
4.2.1 Beamsteered and weighted arrays
4.3 Circular Arrays
4.3.1 Beamsteered circular arrays
4.4 Rectangular Planar Arrays
4.5 Fixed Beam Arrays
4.5.1 Butler matrices
4.6 Fixed Sidelobe Canceling
4.7 Retrodirective Arrays
4.7.1 Passive retrodirective array
4.7.2 Active retrodirective array
Principles of Random Variables and Processes
5.1 Deﬁnition of Random Variables
5.2 Probability Density Functions
5.3 Expectation and Moments
5.4 Common Probability Density Functions
5.4.1 Gaussian density
5.4.2 Rayleigh density
5.4.3 Uniform density
5.4.4 Exponential density
5.4.5 Rician density
5.4.6 Laplace density
5.5 Stationarity and Ergodicity
5.6 Autocorrelation and Power Spectral Density
5.7 Correlation Matrix
Propagation Channel Characteristics
6.1 Flat Earth Model
6.2 Multipath Propagation Mechanisms
6.3 Propagation Channel Basics
6.3.3 Channel impulse response
6.3.4 Power delay proﬁle
6.3.5 Prediction of power delay proﬁles
6.3.6 Power angular proﬁle
6.4 Improving Signal Quality
6.4.1 Equalization
6.4.4 MIMO
Angle-of-Arrival Estimation
7.1 Fundamentals of Matrix Algebra
7.1.1 Vector basics
7.1.2 Matrix basics
7.2 Array Correlation Matrix
7.3 AOA Estimation Methods
7.3.1 Bartlett AOA estimate
7.3.2 Capon AOA estimate
7.3.3 Linear prediction AOA estimate
7.3.4 Maximum entropy AOA estimate
7.3.5 Pisarenko harmonic decomposition AOA estimate
7.3.6 Min-norm AOA estimate
7.3.7 MUSIC AOA estimate
7.3.8 Root-MUSIC AOA estimate
7.3.9 ESPRIT AOA estimate
8.1 Introduction
8.2 The Historical Development of Smart Antennas
8.3 Fixed Weight Beamforming Basics
8.3.1 Maximum signal-to-interference ratio
8.3.2 Minimum mean-square error
Index
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Smart Antennas for Wireless Communication - With MATLAB

# Smart Antennas for Wireless Communication - With MATLAB

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11/16/2012

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