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Networking Questions

Networking Questions

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Published by: api-26403048 on Oct 17, 2008
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The OSI, or Open System Interconnection, model defines a networking framework for implementing protocols in seven layers. Control is passed from one layer to the next, starting at the application layer in one station, proceeding to the bottom layer, over the channel to the next station and back up the hierarchy.

(Layer 7)

This layer supportsa pplica tion and end-user processes. Communication
partners are identified, quality of service is identified, usera uthe ntic ation
and privacy are considered, and any constraints on datas yntax are
identified. Everything at this layer is application-specific. This layer
provides application services for file transfers,e -mail, and otherne tw ork

softwares ervi ces . Telneta nd FTP are applications that exist entirely in the
application level. Tiered application architectures are part of this layer.
(Layer 6)

This layer provides independence from differences in data representation
(e.g.,e ncrypt ion) by translating from application to network format, and
vice versa. The presentation layer works to transform data into the form
that the application layer can accept. This layer formats and encrypts data
to be sent across a network, providing freedom from compatibility
problems. It is sometimes called the syntax layer.

(Layer 5)

This layer establishes, manages and terminates connections between
applications. The session layer sets up, coordinates, and terminates
conversations, exchanges, and dialogues between the applications at each
end. It deals with session and connection coordination.

(Layer 4)

This layer providest rans pare nt transfer of data between end systems, or
hosts, and is responsible for end-to-end error recovery and flow control. It
ensures complete data transfer.

(Layer 3)

This layer providess wit ching androut ing technologies, creating logical paths, known as virtual circuits, for transmitting data fromnode to node. Routing and forwarding are functions of this layer, as well as addressing,

internetworking, error handling, congestion control and packets equenci ng.
Data Link
(Layer 2)

At this layer, data packets are encoded and decoded intobi ts. It furnishes
transmission protocol knowledge and management and handles errors in the
physical layer, flow control and frame synchronization. The data link layer
is divided into two sublayers: The Media Access Control (MAC) layer and
the Logical Link Control (LLC) layer. The MAC sublayer controls how a
computer on the network gains access to the data and permission to
transmit it. The LLC layer controls frame synchronization, flow control and
error checking.

(Layer 1)
This layer conveys thebi t stream - electrical impulse, light or radio signal
-- through the network at the electrical and mechanical level. It provides the
hardware means of sending and receiving data on a carrier, including
defining cables,c ards and physical aspects. Fast Ethernet,RS 232, and
ATM are protocols with physical layer components
Toc he ck theI P-address, use on the Start-menu the RUN-command to
Windows95/98/ME = winipcfg
Toc he ck theI P-address, use on the Start-menu the RUN-cmd to execute
Windows 2000/NT/2003/XP... Enter at thecomman d prompt enter ipconfig,
3 Hub, switch, what is difference

They look a lot alike: There is a row of RJ-45 jacks, sometimes called "ports." There may be some lights to tell you it's working. There will be some way to provide a electric power to it -- probably a "wall wart" transformer. The prices have even started to converge -- you can get a modest switch for little or no extra money vs. a similar hub.

As you may have guessed, ahub is the simpler of the two. It simply
connects all the devices on its "ports" together. Aswitc h is a bit
smarter; it understands when two devices (out of four, five, eight,
sixteen, or even more) want to talk to each other, and gives them a

switchedco nnection.
What does "switched" mean?

A hub is like a CB radio, with devices constantly yelling "Breaker! Breaker!" and trying to talk around each other. A switched connection is like a private phone call. A switch is like a tiny telephone company that lets pairs of devices make direct connections. When you are using a switch, the only time you will see traffic from other devices is when it is (a) directed to the address of the machine you are using, or (b) when it is "broadcast" using your network's broadcast address (again, as discussed previously).

So a switch is better, right? Well, for many purposes, yes. If you have six PC's, and you want to transfer some big files between two of them and still be able to use the other four for other things, a switch will make a big difference in performance. But if you want to install an intrusion detection device (or a network "sniffer") to learn about your

network, you won't see very much unless you use a hub. If you're a
student trying to learn about network protocols or an administrator
with security in your job description, putting a hub in the right place is
the best way to do it.


A router is fundamentally a device with two network interfaces. What
goes between them is merely a matter of detail. You can even
simulate this with only one NIC by creating avirtualint erfa ce that has
a different address; but a good router will have two physical NICs, plus
something to transfer packets between them. The "something" can be
a Linux PC configured for IP forwarding; a Windows PC running a
product such as Sybergen's Sygate Home Network; but if you're doing
serious work, it will be a specialized chunk of hardware and software
from a company such as Cisco. PCs aren't the best choice for this
because processing an "interrupt" for each packet to be handled is a
lot of work for a PC-class CPU.
A good example of a router is a so-called cable modem. It is a actually
a router, with one interface on the cable company's LAN, and the other
on your home LAN. In my case, that means one connector is a cable
TV connector (it's called an "F" connector; it isnot the BNC connector
used by "thinwire Ethernet"). The one I'm using offers a choice
betwwen a standard RJ-45 and a USB connection on the PC side.

Different cable companies handle things differently; in my case, when
I set up the cable modem, it used DHCP to get a dynamic address
from the cable company, and passed it along to my PC. Assuming
you're using Windows 9x, you can configure your PC to "get an IP
address automatically", reboot (of course), and then run a command
calledw inip cfg to see what address the tiny DHCP server inside the cable
modem has given you. In Windows 2000, pick Start, Run,cmd to get a
command line window, then runipconfig.

If you want to share your cable connection with more than one PC, you
will need another router. That can take different forms depending on
your level of experience, your enthusiasm, and your budget. These are
alternatives -- you only need one:

4 To install add on cards in personal computer:
In windows xp is plug and play.automatically dedect the

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