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U.S. Forces for Domestic Military Missions

U.S. Forces for Domestic Military Missions

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Published by GustavBlitz
Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee
on National Security, Emerging
Threats, and International Relations,
Committee on Government Reform,
House of Representatives
United States General Accounting Office
GAO
July 2003 HOMELAND
DEFENSE
DOD Needs to
Assess the Structure
of U.S. Forces for
Domestic Military
Missions
Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee
on National Security, Emerging
Threats, and International Relations,
Committee on Government Reform,
House of Representatives
United States General Accounting Office
GAO
July 2003 HOMELAND
DEFENSE
DOD Needs to
Assess the Structure
of U.S. Forces for
Domestic Military
Missions

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Published by: GustavBlitz on Oct 17, 2008
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Report to the Chairman, Subcommitteeon National Security, EmergingThreats, and International Relations,Committee on Government Reform,House of Representatives
United States General Accounting Office
GAO
July 2003
HOMELANDDEFENSEDOD Needs to Assess the Structureof U.S. Forces forDomestic MilitaryMissions
GAO-03-670
 
DOD’s military and nonmilitary missions differ in terms of roles, duration,acceptance, and capabilities normally employed.The threat of terrorism has altered some military operations. For example,as of September 11, 2001, the North American Aerospace Defense Commandorders combat air patrols over U.S. cities to prevent terrorist attacks.The 1878 Posse Comitatus Act prohibits the direct use of federal militarytroops in domestic civilian law enforcement, except where authorized by theConstitution or acts of Congress. Congress has expressly authorized the useof the military in certain situations such as to assist with terrorist incidentsinvolving weapons of mass destruction.DOD has established new organizations (such as U.S. Northern Command)and implemented a campaign plan for domestic military missions, but ithas not evaluated or adjusted its force structure. GAO did not assess theadequacy of the new organizations or the campaign plan because theorganizations were not yet fully operational, and the campaign plan was onlyrecently completed. DOD’s force structure is not well tailored to performdomestic military missions and may not be able to sustain the high pace of operations that preceded and followed the attacks on September 11, 2001.While on domestic military missions, combat units are unable to maintain proficiency because these missions provide less opportunity to practicethe varied skills required for combat and consequently offer little training value. In addition, from September 2001 through December 2002, thenumber of servicemembers exceeding the established personnel tempothresholds increased substantially, indicating that the present force structuremay not be sufficient to address the increase in domestic and overseasmilitary missions. As a result, U.S. forces could experience an unsustainable pace that could significantly erode their readiness to perform combatmissions and impact future personnel retention.
F16 Fighter Aircraft Conduct a Combat Air Patrol over Washington, D.C.
The way in which the federalgovernment views the defense of the United States has dramaticallychanged since September 11, 2001.Consequently, the Department of Defense (DOD) has adjusted itsstrategic and operational focus toencompass not only traditionalmilitary concerns posed by hostilestates overseas but also theasymmetric threats directed at ourhomeland by both terrorists andhostile states.GAO was asked to review DOD’sdomestic missions, including(1) how DOD’s military andnonmilitary missions differ;(2) how DOD’s military andnonmilitary missions havechanged since September 11, 2001;(3) how the 1878 Posse Comitatus Act affects DOD’s nonmilitarymissions; and (4) the extent towhich DOD’s organizations, plans, and forces are adequate fordomestic military missions and theconsequent sustainability of thecurrent mission approach.GAO recommends that DODassess domestic military missionrequirements and determine whatsteps should be taken to structureU.S. forces to better accomplishdomestic military missions whilemaintaining proficiency foroverseas combat missions. DODgenerally concurred with the needto do an assessment that isexpressed in our recommendation.
 
www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?GAO-03-670.  To view the full product, including the scopeand methodology, click on the link above.For more information, contactRaymond J. Decker at (202) 512-6020 ordeckerr@gao.gov.Highlights ofGAO-03-670,a report to the Chairman, Subcommittee onNational Security, Emerging Threats,and International Relations,Committee on Government Reform,House of Representatives
July 2003
HOMELAND DEFENSE
DOD Needs to Assess the Structureof U.S. Forces for Domestic MilitaryMissions
 
 Page i GAO-03-670 Homeland Defense
Letter
1
 
Results in Brief 2
 
Background 5
 
Key Differences Between DOD’s Military and Nonmilitary Missions 8
 
The Threat of Terrorism Altered Some Military Operations 10
 
The Posse Comitatus Act Restricts DOD’s Role in CivilianLaw Enforcement 11
 
DOD Created Organizations and a Plan for Domestic MilitaryMissions, but Force Structure Adjustments Have Not Been Made 12
 
Conclusions 23
 
Recommendation for Executive Action 23
 
 Agency Comments and Our Evaluation 23
 
 Appendix I Scope and Methodology
26
 Appendix II Comments from the Department of Defense
30
 Appendix III GAO Contact and Staff Acknowledgments
39
Related GAO Products
40
Tables
Table 1: Key Differences between DOD’s Military and NonmilitaryMissions 8
 
Table 2: Estimated Military Personnel Affected by DOD’s Usage of Stop Loss Authority as of April 30, 2003 22
 
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