adjustment, etc. Some of these form independent subsystems, but communications
among others is essential. A subsystem may need to control actuators or receive
feedback from sensors. The CAN standard was devised to fill this need.
The CAN bus may be used in vehicles to connect engine control unit and transmission,
or (on a different bus) to connect the door locks, climate control, seat control, etc. Today
the CAN bus is also used as afieldbus in general automation environments: this is
especially because of the cheap prices of some CAN Controllers and processors. On the
other hand any official use of CAN requires that a fee for the CAN Protocol License is
to be paid to Bosch who developed the protocol and hold patents.
Unforeseen problems incorporated into CAN based system are often contributed from the design methods used for the system and the individual component implementations. Scheduling methods which take into account the timing related to ECU software and hardware architecture, communication driver performance, and the network arbitration are required for minimizing the effort of testing required prior to manufacturing.
The development of distributed network based systems often utilizes multiple suppliers
for the prototyping of different modules and sub-systems. In order to best control the
complexities incorporated from such a distributed developmental process, the Original
Equipment Manufacturer usually requires a set of standard tests and procedures to be
run on the prototypes prior to delivery.
These tests usually require the prototype ECU to be connected to a simulated system
where performance measurements can be made for consideration of the physical layer,
communication layer, and application layer. The standard tests are run repeatedly until
the Device Under Test (DUT) passes all necessary tests. The requirements for testing
vary depending on the Original Equipment Manufacturers focus and may include
portions of the following sample test sequence:
Hardware Damage Immunity to Source Voltage Short, Hardware under voltage
operation characteristics Communication Waveform Characteristics: Transceiver tests
(short to GND, short to VBAT, ect.), Signal Integrity (I-diagrams), Signal Jitter
Analysis, Noise Injection Tests
The supplier module level testing cleans up a majority of issues, however the greatest
task of identifying and troubleshooting issues is often confronted during the integration
testing phase. The integration testing phase requires that the \u201clive\u201d ECU\u2019s be
interconnected for the first time and the ultimate goal of this phase is to eliminate all
causes of system behavior which may negatively impact the manufactured products
Time constraints require efficient use of test processes, available resources and tools to
ensure the highest levels of product quality are delivered at the conclusion of the
integration testing phase. Testing teams must possess a means for identification and
isolation of faults, along with the experience needed for quickly assessing possible root
causes. The time required for actually tracking down and solving the root failure mode
can often be extremely difficult and not time effective in widely distributed processes.
Testing tools must be scalable, flexible, and integrate able to provide test coverage for
all pertinent levels of the OSI model. The ideal test tools themselves must provide the
knowledge and know-how of skilled engineers by identifying questionable conditions,
and then using reasoning to guide the test engineer in solving the issue. The tool should
also be easily configurable, comprehensive, include predefined test libraries, and
provide extremely reliable measurements..
Each node is able to send and receive messages, but not simultaneously: a message
(consisting primarily of an ID \u2014 usually chosen to identify the message-type/sender \u2014
and up to 8 message bytes) is transmitted serially onto the bus, one bit after another \u2014
this signal-pattern codes the message (inNRZ) and is sensed by all nodes.
If the bus is free, any node may begin to transmit. If two or more nodes begin sending
messages at the same time, the message with the more dominant ID (which has more
dominant bits ie. bit 0) will overwrite other nodes' less dominant IDs, so that eventually
(after this arbitration on the ID) only the dominant message remains and is received by
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