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Fuzzy Autopilot

Fuzzy Autopilot

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03/18/2014

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FUZZY AUTOPILOT FOR SHIPS EXPERIENCING SHALLOW WATER EFFECT
IN MANOEUVERING
Zoran Vuki\ue000*, Edin Omerdi\ue000 and Ljubomir Kulja\ue001a

University of Zagreb, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing
Department of Control and Computer Engineering in Automation
Unska 3, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia

*(e-mail: zoran.vukic@fer.hr)
Abstract:A fuzzy autopilot for ship path control is proposed. Nonlinear model of a ship and a steering subsystem is used.

The autopilot uses heading signal and yaw rate signal to produce a command rudder angle. The autopilot does not use lateral offset from the nominal track. Input variable fuzzyfication, fuzzy associative memory rules and output set defuzzyfication are described. The influence of the shallow water effect during larger maneuver is analyzed.

Keywords:
Disturbance rejection, Fuzzy control, Nonlinear control systems, Ship control
1. INTRODUCTION

The conventional autopilot for ship's course keeping involves the heading angle feedback. However, by including an additional position feedback, a ship guidance system can be designed (Fossen, 1994). The desired route is most easily specified by way points. Modern sea going vessels have a range of navigation aids including globa positioning system (GPS) receivers, Doppler sonar, gyrocompass etc. These devices provide information required to implement track guidance. Nonlinearity of the ship model and the steering gear subsystem during course-changing and the lack of a simple mathematical model makes it appropriate to design the controller with fuzzy logic instead of the conventional approach. An accurate following of the desired track is of great importance here. Although strictly speaking normal navigation is also a track-keeping problem, this paper particularly discusses an autopilot for accurate track-keeping in manoeuver. The fuzzy autopilot proposed here was designed and tested by simulation in MATLAB using SIMULINK with Fuzzy Logic Toolbox. The autopilot is designed to be used for a wide range of

ship types and ship velocities. Notch filter was used to minimize the effects of wave disturbance. Shallow water effects during manoeuvering were analyzed for the nonlinear model of ESSO 190000 dwt Tanker.

This paper is organized as follows: Section 2 introduces mathematical models of the ship, the steering machine and the disturbances. Section 3 describes the course controller designed with fuzzy logic. Section 4 introduces the turning concept and the implementation of course controller in track- keeping systems. Section 5 presents the simulation results. Finally, Section 6 summarizes the concluding remarks.

2. MATHEMATICAL MODELS

Although the design of a fuzzy controller does not depend on a mathematical model of the process, such a model is necessary to simulate various motions of ship.

2.1 Ship dynamics

In order to verify controller behavior in different conditions, it is useful to simulate the control law against a realistic model of the vessel. In this paper we shall deal with two nonlinear ship models: Mariner

Class
Vessel
(Length

between perpendiculars is Lpp=160.93 m) and ESSO 190000 dwt Tanker (Lpp=304.8 m). The nonlinear mathematical models which describe the dynamic between the rudder angle\u03b4 and the yaw motion for these ships are given in (Fossen, 1994, Appendix E). Ship's models were transformed to S-functions and adapted for the on-line simulation.

2.2 Steering Gear Subsystem

The steering gear subsystem considered is the "two- loop" electrohydraulic steering subsystem common on many ships. The nonlinear steering gear model is shown in Fig. 1. (Vuki\ue000, 1989).

Fig. 1. Nonlinear steering gear model.
Table 1 Parameter values for steering subsystem
Telemotor Position
Servo
Rudder Servo
Actuator
K = 4[ \u00b0/s]
N = 5[ \u00b0/s]
2D = 0.4[ \u00b0]
\ue000PB\ue000= 7[\u00b0]
H = 0.8[ \u00b0]
2.3 Disturbances

There are several disturbances with various effects on the system to be taken into account (Amerongen, 1979). Three classes of disturbances can be distinguished:

\u2022 "disturbances" which affect the dynamics of the
system (e.g. the depth of water),
\u2022disturbances which cause additional signals in
the system (e.g. waves),
\u2022disturbances that corrupt the measurements (e.g.
noise on the position measurements).

In this paper we consider wave disturbance during course-keeping and change of depth under keel during track-keeping.

Wind-Generated Waves

We shall deal with the second-order wave transfer function approximation (Fossen, 1994). This model is written as

h s
K s
s
ws w
( )=
+
+
\u03c9
\u03be
2
0
02
2
(1)
A linear state-space model can be obtained by
transforming this expression to the time-domain by:
d y
dt
dy
dt
y Kddt
2
2
0
02
2
+
+
=
\u03be\u03c9
\u03c9
\u03c9
\u03c9
(2)
Definingdx
dt
x
h
h
1
2
=
andx
y
h
h
2=
, the state-
space model can be written as:
dx
dt
dx
dt
x
x
K
h
h
h
h
h
1
2
02
0
1
2
0
1
2
0
\ue000\ue001\ue002\ue002\ue002
\ue003\ue004\ue005\ue005\ue005
=
\u2212
\u2212
\ue000\ue001\ue002
\ue003\ue004\ue005\ue000\ue001\ue002 \ue003\ue004\ue005+\ue000\ue001\ue002 \ue003\ue004\ue005
\u03c9
\u03be\u03c9
\u03c9
\u03c9
(3)
where\u03c9h is a zero-mean white noise process. Due
to its simplicity, this model is useful for control
systems design.
Depth under keel
The shallow water effect for the ESSO Tanker is
given by a water depth parameter (Fossen, 1994):
\u03b6=
\u2212T
h T
(4)
where T (m) is the ship draft (T=18.46 m) andh > T
is the water depth. If states\u03b6\u226508
.
(i.e.
h
m
\u226441535
.
), additional terms appear in the
nonlinear equations of motion and changes
dynamics of the ship.
3. FUZZY LOGIC COURSE AUTOPILOT
The fuzzy autopilot for course keeping uses two
control inputs: heading errore
d
=
\u2212
\u03c8 \u03c8and yaw
rater d
dt
=\u03c8/
. The control action generated by
the autopilot is the command rudder angle\u03b4C . Fig.
2. shows a simple block diagram of the autopilot
(Tovornik, 1995).
Conditioning
Conditioning
er
error
errordot
Conditioning
y
\u03b4C
Fuzzy Logic
Course Controller
Fig. 2. Block diagram of the fuzzy logic course
autopilot.
Block "Conditioning" serves for scaling and
conditioning controller input and output variables.
The membership functions of the fuzzy sets are
labeled as follows:
Table 2 Labels for the membership functions
NB
negative big
PS
positive small
NMnegative medium
PMpositive medium
NS
negative small
PBpositive big
ZE
zero
Fig. 3. Membership functions of fuzzy sets for
errora nd errordot.
Fig. 4. Membership functions of fuzzy sets fory.

Fig. 3. gives the membership functions of fuzzy sets used for input variableserro r anderrord ot (\ue001onlagi\ue000, 1996). In Fig. 4. membership functions of fuzzy sets for output variabley are given. Different shapes of membership functions were analyzed, but forms of membership functions shown in Fig. 3. and Fig. 4. with Mamdani inference mechanism gave the best results (Polkinghorne, 1995).

Table 3 Rulebase of the fuzzy course autopilot
error
e
NB
NM NS
ZE
PS
PM
PB
r
NB
NB
NB
NB
NB
NM
NS
ZE
r
NMNB
NB
NB
NM
NS
ZE
PS
o
NS
NB
NB
NM
NS
ZE
PS
PM
r
ZE
NB
NM
NS
ZE
PS
PM
PB
d
PS
NM
NS
ZE
PS
PM
PB
PB
o
PM
NS
ZE
PS
PM
PB
PB
PB
t
PB
ZE
PS
PM
PB
PB
PB
PB

Each control input has seven fuzzy sets so that there is a maximum of 49 fuzzy rules. Table 3 shows the complete rulebase for the controller.

In Fig. 5. the block diagram of the control system
for the course-keeping with fuzzy autopilot is given.
Fuzzy Logic Course
Controller
Steering Subsystem
Ship
\u03a8d
\u03a8
er
\u03b4C
\u03b4
\u03a8
Disturbances
Notch Filter
Fig. 5. Block diagram of the control system for the
course-keeping.
4. FUZZY LOGIC TRACK-KEEPING
AUTOPILOT

A track-keeping autopilot (given in Fig. 6.) can be obtained by introducing an additional position feedback in the control system shown in Fig. 6. A ship position (X(t), Y(t)) is calculated from kinematics equations. In a real system it can be obtained from GPS (Global Positioning System).

Fuzzy Logi c Course
Controller
Steering Subsystem
Ship
\u03a8d
\u03a8
er
\u03b4C
\u03b4
\u03a8
Disturbances
Calculating desired yaw
angle
X
Y
Way points (Xd, Yd)
X Y
Xd
Yd
Fig. 6. Block diagram of control system for track-
keeping.

The desired route is most easily specified using way points (P1, P2, ..., Pn) with coordinates Pi=(Xi, Yi). We shall use a turning concept shown in Fig. 7., where it is supposed that ship moves in a straight line between way points. A track changing maneuver is performed in such a way that the ship moves in a circle arc.

Pi
Pi+1
\u03d5
Ship
Pi -1
WOPWOP*
(
)
\u03c10=d WOP Pi
,
R
\u03c10
Fig. 7. Turning concept for track-keeping.

The wheel over point (WOP*) is the point where a ship leaves a straight line motion and enters the circle arc and vice versa (Holzh\u00fcter, 1995). The WOP* will not be a starting point of the turning manoeuver, because it is impossible to change the turn rater of the ship instantaneously. The model-

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