University of Zagreb, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing
Department of Control and Computer Engineering in Automation
Unska 3, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia
The autopilot uses heading signal and yaw rate signal to produce a command rudder angle. The autopilot does not use lateral offset from the nominal track. Input variable fuzzyfication, fuzzy associative memory rules and output set defuzzyfication are described. The influence of the shallow water effect during larger maneuver is analyzed.
The conventional autopilot for ship's course keeping involves the heading angle feedback. However, by including an additional position feedback, a ship guidance system can be designed (Fossen, 1994). The desired route is most easily specified by way points. Modern sea going vessels have a range of navigation aids including globa positioning system (GPS) receivers, Doppler sonar, gyrocompass etc. These devices provide information required to implement track guidance. Nonlinearity of the ship model and the steering gear subsystem during course-changing and the lack of a simple mathematical model makes it appropriate to design the controller with fuzzy logic instead of the conventional approach. An accurate following of the desired track is of great importance here. Although strictly speaking normal navigation is also a track-keeping problem, this paper particularly discusses an autopilot for accurate track-keeping in manoeuver. The fuzzy autopilot proposed here was designed and tested by simulation in MATLAB using SIMULINK with Fuzzy Logic Toolbox. The autopilot is designed to be used for a wide range of
ship types and ship velocities. Notch filter was used to minimize the effects of wave disturbance. Shallow water effects during manoeuvering were analyzed for the nonlinear model of ESSO 190000 dwt Tanker.
This paper is organized as follows: Section 2 introduces mathematical models of the ship, the steering machine and the disturbances. Section 3 describes the course controller designed with fuzzy logic. Section 4 introduces the turning concept and the implementation of course controller in track- keeping systems. Section 5 presents the simulation results. Finally, Section 6 summarizes the concluding remarks.
Although the design of a fuzzy controller does not depend on a mathematical model of the process, such a model is necessary to simulate various motions of ship.
In order to verify controller behavior in different conditions, it is useful to simulate the control law against a realistic model of the vessel. In this paper we shall deal with two nonlinear ship models: Mariner
between perpendiculars is Lpp=160.93 m) and ESSO 190000 dwt Tanker (Lpp=304.8 m). The nonlinear mathematical models which describe the dynamic between the rudder angle\u03b4 and the yaw motion for these ships are given in (Fossen, 1994, Appendix E). Ship's models were transformed to S-functions and adapted for the on-line simulation.
The steering gear subsystem considered is the "two- loop" electrohydraulic steering subsystem common on many ships. The nonlinear steering gear model is shown in Fig. 1. (Vuki\ue000, 1989).
There are several disturbances with various effects on the system to be taken into account (Amerongen, 1979). Three classes of disturbances can be distinguished:
In this paper we consider wave disturbance during course-keeping and change of depth under keel during track-keeping.
We shall deal with the second-order wave transfer function approximation (Fossen, 1994). This model is written as
Fig. 3. gives the membership functions of fuzzy sets used for input variableserro r anderrord ot (\ue001onlagi\ue000, 1996). In Fig. 4. membership functions of fuzzy sets for output variabley are given. Different shapes of membership functions were analyzed, but forms of membership functions shown in Fig. 3. and Fig. 4. with Mamdani inference mechanism gave the best results (Polkinghorne, 1995).
Each control input has seven fuzzy sets so that there is a maximum of 49 fuzzy rules. Table 3 shows the complete rulebase for the controller.
A track-keeping autopilot (given in Fig. 6.) can be obtained by introducing an additional position feedback in the control system shown in Fig. 6. A ship position (X(t), Y(t)) is calculated from kinematics equations. In a real system it can be obtained from GPS (Global Positioning System).
The desired route is most easily specified using way points (P1, P2, ..., Pn) with coordinates Pi=(Xi, Yi). We shall use a turning concept shown in Fig. 7., where it is supposed that ship moves in a straight line between way points. A track changing maneuver is performed in such a way that the ship moves in a circle arc.
The wheel over point (WOP*) is the point where a ship leaves a straight line motion and enters the circle arc and vice versa (Holzh\u00fcter, 1995). The WOP* will not be a starting point of the turning manoeuver, because it is impossible to change the turn rater of the ship instantaneously. The model-
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