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EE201 Network Theorems

EE201 Network Theorems

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Network Theorems – Professor J R Lucas
1
November 2001
 
Network Theorems
-
 J. R. Lucas
 
The fundamental laws that govern electric circuits are the Ohm’s Law and the Kirchoff’sLaws.
Ohm’s Law
Ohm’s Law states that the voltage
v(t)
across a resistor R is directly proportioal to the current
i(t)
flowing through it.
v(t)
i(t)
or
v(t)
=
R
.
i(t)
 This general statement of Ohm’s Law can be extended to cover inductances and capacitors aswell under alternating current conditions and transient conditions. This is then known as theGeneralised Ohm’s Law. This may be stated as
v(t) = Z(p) . i(t)
, where p = d/dt = differential operator
 Z(p)
is known as the impedance function of the circuit, and the above equation is thedifferential equation governing the behaviour of the circuit.For a resistor,
 Z(p) = R
For an inductor
Z(p) = L p
For a capacitor,
 Z(p) = p
1 In the particular case of alternating current,
 p = j
ω 
 
so that the equation governing circuitbehaviour may be written as
V = Z(j
ω 
)
.
 I ,
andFor a resistor,
 Z(j
ω 
) = R
For an inductor
Z(j
ω 
) = j
ω 
L
For a capacitor,
 Z(j
ω 
) = j
ω 
1 We cannot analyse electric circuits using Ohm
s Law only. We also need the Kirchoff 
scurrent law and the Kirchoff 
s voltage law.
Kirchoff 
s Current Law
Kirchoff 
s current law is based on the principle of conservation of charge. This requires thatthe algebraic sum of the charges within a system cannot change. Thus the total rate of changeof charge must add up to zero. Rate of change of charge is current.This gives us our basic Kirchoff 
s current law as the algebraic sum of the currents meeting ata point is zero.i.e. at a node,
Σ
I
r
= 0, where I
r
are the currents in the branches meeting at the nodeThis is also sometimes stated as the sum of the currents entering a node is equal to the sum of the current leaving the node.The theorem is applicable not only to a node, but to a closed system.Rv(t)
 
i(t)
 
Z(p)v(t)
 
i(t)
 
 
Network Theorems
 – 
Professor J R Lucas
2
November 2001
 
i
1
+ i
2
– i
3
+ i
4
– i
5
= 0i
1
+ i
2
+ i
4
= i
3
+ i
5
 
Also for the closed boundary,
i
a
 
− 
i
b
+ i
c
– i
– i
e
= 0
 
Kirchoff 
s Voltage Law
Kirchoff 
s voltage law is based on the principle of conservation of energy. This requires thatthe total work done in taking a unit positive charge around a closed path and ending up at theoriginal point is zero.This gives us our basic Kirchoff 
s law as the algebraicsum of the potential differences taken round a closed loopis zero.i.e. around a loop,
Σ
V
r
= 0,where V
r
are the voltages across the branches in the loop.
v
a
+ v
b
+ v
c
+ v
– v
e
= 0
This is also sometimes stated as the sum of the emfs takenaround a closed loop is equal to the sum of the voltagedrops around the loop.Although all circuits could besolved using only Ohm
s Law and Kirchoff 
s laws, thecalculations would be tedious. Various network theorems have been formulated to simplifythese calculations.
 Example 1
For the purposes of understanding the principle of the Ohm
s Law and the Kirchoff 
s Lawsand their applicability, we will consider only a resistive circuit. However it must beremembered that the laws are applicable to alternating currents as well.For the circuit shown in the figure, let us use Ohm
s Law and Kirchoff 
s Laws to solve forthe current I in the 160
resistor.Using Kirchoff 
s current lawI = I
1
 
I
2
Using Kirchoff 
s voltage law100 = 20 I
1
+ 160 (I
1
 
I
2
)
10 = 18 I
1
 
16 I
2
70 = 20 I
2
 
160 (I
1
 
I
2
)
7 = 16 I
1
 
18 I
2
which has the solution I
1
= 1 A, I
2
= 0.5 A and the unknown current I = 0.5A.i
1
i
2
i
3
i
5
i
4
i
a
i
d
i
b
i
e
i
c
v
a
v
d
v
b
v
e
v
c
loop
 
E
1
= 100 V20
20
160
 
E
2
= 70 V
I
1
I
 
I
2
 
Network Theorems
 – 
Professor J R Lucas
3
November 2001
 
Superposition Theorem
The superposition theorem tells us that if a network comprises of more than one source, theresulting currents and voltages in the network can be determined by taking each sourceindependently and superposing the results.If an excitation
e
1
(t)
alone gives a response
1
(t)
,and an excitation
e
2
(t)
alone gives a response
2
(t)
,then, by superposition theorem, if the excitation
e
1
(t)
and the excitation
e
2
(t)
together wouldgive a response
r(t) = r 
1
(t) + r 
2
(t)
 The superposition theorem can even be stated in a more general manner, where thesuperposition occurs with scaling.Thus an excitation of 
1
e
1
(t)
and an excitation of 
2
e
2
(t)
occuring together would give aresponse of 
1
1
(t) + k 
2
2
(t)
.
 Example 2
Let us solve the same problem as earlier, but using Superposition theorem.
Solution
for circuit 1, source current =
 A
647.2778.37100180201602010020 // 16020 100
==×+=+
 
i
1
= 2.64718020
×
= 0.294 A
LinearPassiveBilateralNetwork 
e
1
(t)
 
e
2
(t)
 
r(t)
 
 
+
 
LinearPassiveBilateralNetwork 
e
1
(t)
 
r
1
(t)
 
LinearPassiveBilateralNetwork 
e
2
(t)
 
r
2
(t)
 
E
1
= 100 V20
20
160
 
E
2
= 70 V
+
 
E
1
= 100 V20
20
160
 
i
1
20
20
160
 
E
2
= 70 V
i
2

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