Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Save to My Library
Look up keyword
Like this
1Activity
P. 1
Ilmu Ekonomi

Ilmu Ekonomi

Ratings: (0)|Views: 229 |Likes:

More info:

Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

10/31/2011

pdf

text

original

 
=
KOAR BFELEAK
M, ^blibxtkml Koar Bfeleak dml Xrmli Oklifr~l{m
Kptkomj ‚bfeleak‛ hbxmpmo dmxk hmjmpm [rlmlk mpmo fmtm ‚ekfeplmaep‛ mtmrekfeleakm‛ {mli mxtkl{m ‚amlmgbabl rxrpml xramj!tmliim‛/ fjrprpl{m~bl{bdkmml dml mdaklkptxmpk ~bldm~mtml, *Pmptxmdk~ebxm/ 8>>=7 4+, Lmarl pbgmf ~bxeobjml amr~rl ~bliirlmml fbfm{mml prahbxdm{m pb`mxm crldmabltmo ~bxordkmdmfml bcbpkblpk tbxamprf ~bfbxgm dml ~xedrfpkl{m/ amfm dmoma hmjmpmaedbxl kptkomj ‚bfeleak‛ tbxpbhrt ablrlgrf tbxjmdm~ ~xklpk~ rpmjm amr~rlabtedb rltrf abl`m~mk trgrml dbliml momt1momt pbpbdkfkt arlifkl, Dk hmymj klkmfml dkgbompfml hbhbxm~m dbcklkpk tbltmli koar bfeleak,Ablrxrt Mohbxt O, Ab{bxp *Mhdroomj/ =;;87 2+ koar bfeleak mdmomj koar{mli aba~bxpemofml fbhrtrjml dml ~barmpml fbhrtrjml amlrpkm, Fmtm frl`kdmxk dbcklkpk klk mdmomj6
 ~bxtmam
/ tbltmli ‟fbhrtrjml‑
 ⎥ 
{mktr prmtr fb~bxormlamlrpkm tbxjmdm~ hmxmli!hmxmli dml gmpm!gmpm {mli pkcmt dml gblkpl{m pmlimthbxam`ma!am`ma dmoma graomj {mli tkdmf tbxhmtmp,
Fbdrm
/ tbltmli‑ ~barmpfbhrtrjml‑ {mli abakokfk `kxk!`kxk ‟tbxhmtmp‑ mdml{m, Mp~bf {mli fbdrm klkomjablrxrt Ok~pb{ *=;:=7 2+ {mli ablkahrofml ampmomj dmoma bfeleak/ {mktrfmxblm mdml{m prmtr fbl{mtmml {mli pblgmli/ fmxblm fbhrtrjml amlrpkm tbxjmdm~hmxmli dml gmpm graomjl{m tmf tbxhmtmp/ pbdmlifml dk omkl ~kjmf hmxmli!hmxmlidml gmpm!gmpm pbhmimk momt ~barmp fbhrtrjml pkcmtl{m omlifm mtmr~rl tbxhmtmp,Ktromj pbhmhl{m amfm amlrpkm dk dmoma jkdr~l{m pbomor hbxjmdm~ml dblimlfbfb`bymml amr~rl fbtkdmf~mptkml, Dbcklkpk klk lma~mfl{m hbiktr ormp pbjkliimfktm prokt abamjmak pb`mxm p~bpkckf,Mjok bfeleak omkll{m {mktr G,O, Abkg *Mhdroomj/ =;;87 3+ ablibarfmfmlhmjym koar bfeleak mdmomj koar tbltmli rpmjm amlrpkm fb mxmj fbamfarxml,^bldm~mt tbxpbhrt pmlimt xbmokptkp/ fmxblm dktklgmr dmxk mp~bf bfeleak dk amlmamlrpkm pbhmimk amjorf bfeleak *
 Jeae B`eleak`rp
+ ~mdm jmfbfmtl{mablimxmj fb~mdm ~bl`m~mkml fbamfarxml, Fbamfarxml ablgmdk trgrml pbltxmodmoma fbjkdr~ml amlrpkm pb`mxm bfeleak/ pbprmk {mli dktrokpfml ~boe~ex‟okhbxmokpab bfeleak‑ eobj Mdma Paktj dmoma hrfr ‟
 Ml Kl}rkx{ klte tjb Lmtrxbmld @mrpb ec tjb Ybmotj ec Lmtkelp‑
tmjrl =;93, Lmarl dbliml `mxm hmimkamlamlrpkm ktr hbxrpmjm abl`m~mk fbamfarxmll{m 5 Dmoma dbcklkpk {mlidkfbarfmfml Abkg abamli tkdmf dkgbompfml,Fbardkml Pmarbopel dml Lexdjmrp *=;;>7 2+ ablibarfmfml ‟
 Koarbfeleak abxr~mfml ptrdk tbltmli ~bxkomfr exmli dml amp{mxmfmt dmoma abakokj`mxm abliirlmfml prahbx dm{m {mli omlifm dml abakokfk hbhbxm~m motbxlmtkc  ~bliirlmml/ dmoma xmlifm aba~xedrfpk hbxhmimk feaedktk/ rltrf fbardkml
 
abl{morxfmll{m
⎥ 
hmkf pmmt klk amr~rl dk ampm db~ml
⎥ 
fb~mdm hbxhmimkkldkskdr dml fboea~ef {mli mdm dmoma prmtr amp{mxmfmt 
, Ablrxrt Pmarbopel
 
8hmjym koar bfeleak ktr abxr~mfml koar ~kokjml, Koar {mli aba~bomgmxkhmimkamlm exmli abakokj ~bliirlmml prahbx!prahbx dm{m ~xedrfpk {mli omlifmmtmr tbxhmtmp rltrf aba~xedrfpk hbxhmimk feaedktk/ dml abl{morxfmll{m fbhbxhmimk mliietm amp{mxmfmt rltrf pbibxm dkfelprapk, Gkfm dkpka~rofml dmxk tkim~bldm~mt dk mtmp ymomr~rl fmokamtl{m hbxhbdm/ lmarl tbxpkxmt hmjym ~mdmjmfkfmtl{m koar bfeleak ktr abxr~mfml rpmjm amlrpkm rltrf abablrjkfbhrtrjmll{m dmoma abl`m~mk fbamfarxml {mli dkjmxm~fml/ dbliml abakokj~bliirlmml prahbx dm{m ~xedrfpk {mli pkcmtl{m omlifm%tbxhmtmp ktr, Dbliml fmtmomkl {mli pbdbxjmlm hmjym koar bfeleak ktr abxr~mfml prmtr dkpk~okl tbltmlimp~bf!mp~bf bfeleak dml tklifmj omfr amlrpkm,Pb`mxm crldmabltmo dml jkptexkp/ koar bfeleak dm~mt dkhbdmfml ablgmdkdrm/ {mflk koar bfeleak ~epktkc dml lexamtkc *Pmarbopel dml Lexdjmrp/ =;;>7;+, Gkfm koar bfeleak ~epktkc jml{m abahmjmp dbpfxk~pk abliblmk cmftm/ pktrmpkdml jrhrliml {mli tbxgmdk dmoma bfeleak, Pbdmlifml koar bfeleak lexamtkc abahmjmp ~bxtkahmliml!~bxtkahmliml lkomk dml btkfm/ pb~bxtk jmxrpfml pkptba~bx~mgmfml dkmxmjfml ~mdm fmkdmj ablimahko dmxk {mli fm{m rltrf ableoeli{mli akpfkl5 Obhkj gbompl{m Pmptxmdk~ebxm/ 8>>=7 4/ ablibarfmfml,
 Koar feleak ~epktkc 
abxr~mfml koar {mli jml{m abokhmtfml dkxkdmoma ampmomj ‚m~mfmj {mli tbxgmdk‛ Eobj fmxblm ktr koarbfeleak ~epktkc ktr lbtxmo tbxjmdm~ lkomk!lkomk, Mxtkl{m koarbfeleak ~epktkc ktr ‚hbhmp lkomk‛ *
smorb cxbb
mtmr
ybtcxbk
+‣jml{mablgbompfml ‚m~mfmj jmxim ktr‛ dml ‚m~mfmj {mli mfml tbxgmdk gkfm jmxim ktr lmkf mtmr trxrl‛ hrfml ‚m~mfmj jmxim ktr mdko mtmrtkdmf‛‣
 Koar bfeleak lexamtksb
/ hbxtbltmliml dbliml koar~epktkc/ koar bfeleak lexamtkc hbxmliim~ml hmjym koarbfeleak jmxrp abokhmtfml dkxk dmoma abl`mxk gmymhml mtmpampmomj ‚m~mfmj {mli pbjmxrpl{m tbxgmdk‛, Bpblpk dmpmx koarbfeleak mdmomj ~bxtkahmliml lkomk *smorb grdiablt+, Pbexmlibfelea ~blimlrt btkfm ~rxktml bimoktmxkmlkpab/ Irllmx A{xdmo*=:;:!=;:9+ obhkj prfm abl{bhrtl{m ‚koar bfeleakklptktrpkelmo‛,Koar bfeleak pbhmimk hmikml dmxk koar pepkmo/ tbltr hbxfmktml dblimlhkdmli!hkdmli dkpk~okl mfmdbakp omkll{m/ pb~bxtk koar ~eoktkf/ ~pkfeoeik/mltxe~eoeik/ pepkeoeik/ pbgmxmj/ ibeixmck/ dml pbhmimkl{m, Pbhmimk `eltejfbikmtml!fbiktml ~eoktkf pbxklifmok dk~blrjk dbliml ampmomj!ampmomj bfeleak/pb~bxtk fbhkgmfpmlmml ~xetbfpk tbxjmdm~ kldrptxk fb`ko/ rldmli!rldmli~bxm~mgmfml/ dml pmlfpk!pmlfpk bfeleak, Klk mxtkl{m hmjym fbikmtml bfeleaktkdmf dm~mt dk~kpmjfml dmxk fbiktml!fbikmtml ~oktkf *Mhdromj/ =;;87 3+,Pbhmimk dkpk~okl {mli ablifmgk tbltmli mp~bf bfeleak dml tklifmj omframlrpkm/ mxtkl{m grim ablifmgk ~bxkptkym!~bxkptkym bfeleak {mli tbxgmdk dkdmoma amp{mxmfmt, Dml ~bxor dkfbtmjrk/ hmjym ablifmgk ~bxkptkym!~bxkptkymbfeleak/ trgrmll{m mdmomj hbxrpmjm rltrf ablibxtk jmfkfmt dmxk ~bxkptkym!~bxkptkym tbxpbhrt {mli pbomlgrtl{m rltrf dk~mjmakl{m, Dbliml dbakfkml dm~mtdkfbarfmfml hmjym trgrml koar bfeleak ktr rltrf7
*=+ abl`mxk ~blibxtkmltbltmli jrhrliml ~bxkptkym!~bxkptkym bfeleak/ hmkf {mli hbxr~m jrhrliml
 
0
fmrpmo amr~rl crlipkelmo, *8+ rltrf dm~mt ablirmpmk ampmomj!ampmomj bfeleak {mli dkjmdm~k eobj amp{mxmfmt,
*Mhdroomj/ =;;879+,Koar bfeleak grim abakokfk fbtbxhmtmpml!fbtbxhmtmpml {mli dkakokfkl{m,Ymomr~rl fktm fbtmjrk dmoma koar klk tbomj dkirlmfml ~bldbfmtml!~bldbfmtmlfrmltktmtkc!amtbamtkp/ tbtm~k ~bldbfmtml!~bldbfmtml tbxpbhrt tkdmf dm~mtablijkomlifml fbtbxhmtmpml!fbtbxhmtmpmll{m {mli abobfmt ~mdm koar bfeleakpbhmimk pmomj pmtr `mhmli koar pepkmo, Ablrxrt Mhdroomj/ *=;;87 :+/ fbtbxhmtmpml!fbtbxhmtmpml tbxpbhrt abl`mfr~7*=+
 
Ehgbf ~bl{bokdkfml koar bfeleak tkdmf dm~mt dkoefmokpmpkfml, Pbhmimkmfkhmtl{m fbpka~roml mtmr iblbxmokpmpk {mli dkmahkol{m hbxpkcmtfeltbfptrmo *mfml tbxkfmt eobj xrmli dml ymftr+,*8+
 
Dmoma koar bfeleak amlrpkm pbomkl hbxfbdrdrfml pbhmimk prhgbf {mli abl{bokdkfk/ grim ehgbf {mli dkpbokdkfk, Eobj fmxblm ktr jmpko~bl{bokdkfmll{m {mli hbxr~m fbpka~roml mtmr~rl iblbxmokpmpk/ tkdmf dm~mt hbxpkcmt artomf/ dk amlm rlprxb!rlprx prhgbfl{m mfml abymxlmkfbpka~roml tbxpbhrt,*0+
 
Tkdmf mdm omhexmtexkra rltrf ablimdmfml ~bx`ehmml!~bx`ehmml,Pbhmimk mfkhmtl{m xmamoml!xmamoml bfeleak pbxkli frxmli tb~mt,*4+
 
Bfeleak jml{m abxr~mfml pmomj pmtr hmikml pmgm dmxk pborxrj ~xeixmamftksktmp dk prmtr lbimxm, Eobj fmxblm ktr m~m {mli dkxbl`mlmfml *
bz!mltb
+ dml fbl{mtmmll{m *
bz!~ept 
+ pbxkli tkdmf pbgmoml,Pbjrhrliml dbliml fbtbxhmtmpml!fbtbxhmtmpmll{m tbxpbhrt/ amfm pbhmimkmfkhmtl{m pkcmt fbhbxomfrml iblbxmokpmpkl{m {mli hbxr~m dmoko!dmoko mtmr jrfra!jrfra dml tbexk!tbexkl{m mfml tbximltrli fb~mdm feltbfp xrmli dml ymftr pbxtmtkdmf artomf, Gmdk pkcmt fbhbxomfrml dmoko!dmoko mtmr jefra!jrfral{m mdmomjhbxp{mxmt, [mktr hkom {mli omkll{m tkdmf hbxrhmj P{mxmt klk hkpm dkpbhrt grimdbliml ‟@mtbxkp ^mxkhrp‑, Jmo klk dkpbhmhfml eobj jrfra!jrfra bfeleakabxr~mfml ~bxl{mtmml!~bxl{mtmml tbltmli tbldblpk!tbldblpk bfeleak, Kmabxr~mfml jrfra!jrfra {mli hbxjrhrliml dbliml tklifmj omfr pepkmoamp{mxmfmt dmoma abablrjk fbhrtrjml jkdr~l{m/ dk amlm tklifmj omfr tbxpbhrt grim dk~blimxrjk mtmr tbximltrli fb~mdm pktrmpk dml feldkpk {mli hbxomfr ~mdmprmtr pmmt, Gmdk koar bfeleak pbhmimk hmikml dmxk koar pepkmo tbtm~ tkdmf dm~mtabob~mpfml dkxkl{m dmxk fbtbxhmtmpml!fbtbxhmtmpml {mli dkakokfk eobj koar pepkmo,Dktklgmr dmxk xrmli!oklifr~%`mfr~mll{m/ koar bfeleak grim dm~mtdkhbdmfml mtmp amfxebfeleak dml akfxebfeleak *Pmarbopel dml Lexdjmrp/=;;>7 ;;+, Kptkomj ‑amfxebfeleak‑ ktr pbldkxk rltrf ~bxtmam fmok dk~bxfblmofmleobj Xmilmx Cxkp`j ~mdm tmjrl =;00/ rltrf dktbxm~fml ~mdm ptrdk abliblmkjrhrliml mltmx mixbimt bfeleak {mli hbxpkcmt ormp/ pb~bxtk6 ~bldm~mtml lmpkelmo/klcompk/ ~blimliirxml mixbimt/ lbxm`m ~bahm{mmxml *Tm{oex/ 8>>>7 2;9+, ^bxordkfbtmjrk hmjym ~mdm ampm pbhboral{m/ pmpmxml fbhkgmfml fmaxebfeleak mdmomjfbpba~mtml fbxgm
 croo ba~oe{ablt 
*feldkpk dk amlm pborxrj prahbx dm{m/fjrprpl{m tblmim fbxgm/ hkpm tbxpbxm~ pb~blrjl{m+ dml ptmhkoktmp jmxim, Ptmhkoktmp
er~rt 
dmxk dmxk tmjrl fb tmjrl
 ⎥ 
rltrf ablijkldmxk obdmfml ~bxtrahrjml mtmrxbpbpk {mli pmlimt ~mxmj
 ⎥ 
abxr~mfml pmpmxml tmahmjml, Tbtm~k/ tklifmt~bxtrahrjml
ert~rt 
~mdm gmlifm ymftr {mli obhkj ~mlgmli/ tbximltrli ~mdmhml{mf cmftex
 ⎥ 
pb~bxtk tbfleoeik/ ~bomtkjml/ dml klpbltkc 
 ⎥ 
{mli `bldbxrli

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->