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Table Of Contents

Introduction
The Chinese language
Mandarin pronunciation
The Chinese vocabulary
1.3.1The plural suffix – men
1.3.2Nouns and definite or indefinite reference
1.5Common nouns: countability
2.1.1Two forms of the number two
4Pronouns
4.1Personal pronouns
4.2Possessive pronouns
4.3Demonstrative pronouns
4.4Interrogative pronouns
4.5Other pronouns
4.6Pronouns and conjunctions
5Adjectives and attributives
5.1Attributives
5.2Adjectives as attributives
5.2.1Monosyllabic adjectives
5.2.2Polysyllabic adjectives and de
5.2.3Disyllabic adjectives and de
5.3Nominal attributives
5.3.1Nominal attributives and de
5.5Verbal phrases or clauses as attributives
5.6The order of sequential attributives
5.8Possessive pronoun and other attributives
5.9 Ér between adjectives
5.10Omission of the noun following an attributive
5.11Attributives in word-formation
6Adjectival and nominal predicates; the verb shì
6.1Adjectival predicates
6.2Adjectival predicates and the verb ‘to be’
6.2.1Adjectival predicates and degree adverbs
6.2.2Adjectival predicates in the negative
6.2.3Adjectival predicates followed by verbs
6.3Non-gradable adjectives as attributives
6.3.1Attributives of shape, colour or material
6.4Nominal and pronominal predicates
6.4.1Verbs resembling shì
6.4.2Nominal predicates without a copula
6.5The copula shì in its negative form
7The verb yˇou; comparisons
7.1The functions of yˇou
7.1.1Ynu indicating possession
7.1.2Mlias negative of ynu
7.1.3Ynuindicating change or development
7.1.4Ynuforming idiomatic expressions
7.1.5Ynu introducing adjectival predicates
7.2Comparison
7.2.1Emphatic or specific comparison
7.2.2Negative comparison
7.2.3Comparison: equivalence or similarity
7.3Comparatives and superlatives
8Verbs and aspect markers
8.1Action, state, and dative verbs
8.2Action verbs
8.3Aspect markers
8.3.1Le
8.3.2Guo
8.3.3Zài
8.3.4Zhe
8.4State verb
8.5Dative verbs
8.5.1Dative verbs relating to spoken activity
8.5.2Dative verbs and aspect markers
8.6Causative verbs
8.7Imperatives
8.7.1Polite requests
8.7.2Imperatives and aspect markers
9Motion verbs and direction indicators
9.1Motion verbs and simple direction indicators
9.2Motion verbs and compound direction indicators
9.3Motion verbs with metaphorical meaning
9.4Direction indicators with specific meanings
10Verbs and time
10.1Time expressions
10.2Point of time expressions
10.6Frequency expressions with meˇi
10.7Time expressions in existence sentences
11Verbs and location
11.1Location expressions
11.2 Zài and postpositional phrases
11.2.1Disyllabic postpositions
11.3Simple location sentences
11.4Location phrases modifying main verbs
11.5Location phrases in existence sentences
11.5.1Shì in existence sentences
11.5.2Zhe in existence sentences
11.6 Le in emergence or disappearance sentences
11.7Order of sequence of time and location phrases
12Verbs: duration and frequency
12.1Duration expressions
12.1.1Duration expressions and noun objects
12.1.3Duration expressions and pronoun objects
12.1.4Duration expressions in dative construction
12.1.5Duration expressions and definite reference
12.2Brief duration
12.2.1Brief duration and instrumental objects
12.3Frequency expressions
13Verbs and complements
13.1Complements
13.2Complements of result
13.3Potential complements
13.4.1Modification of complement of manner
13.4.2Complement of consequential state
13.5Complement of location or destination
13.6Degree complements
14Verbs and adverbials
14.1Adverbials of manner
14.1.2Adverbials of manner with marked verbs
14.1.3Adverbials of manner with unmarked verbs
14.1.5Particular types of adverbials of manner
14.2Attitudinal adverbial expressions
14.3Referential adverbs
14.4Referential adverbs with negatives
14.5Order of sequence of referential adverbs
14.6Order of adverbials in sequence
15Modal and similar verbs
15.1Modal, attitudinal, and intentional verbs
15.2Modal verbs
15.2.1Modal verbs and adverbs of degree
15.2.2Modal verbs and comparison
15.3Attitudinal verbs
15.3.1Wàngle and Jìde
15.3.2Gaoxìng
15.4Intentional verbs
15.4.1Negation of intentional verbs
16.3Cases where sentence le is not used
16.4Ultimate versatility of sentence le
17Questions
17.1Question-word questions
17.1.1Zlnmeyàng
17.1.2Dud in questions
17.1.3Ne in questions
17.2General questions with ma
17.3Surmise questions with ba
17.8Rhetorical questions
18Subject and predicate; topic and comment
18.1Dual patterning of sentence structures
18.2Subject-predicate sentences
18.3Topic-comment sentences
18.4Topic | subject-predicate sentences
18.4.1Notional passive sentences
18.5Subject | topic-comment sentences
19Prepositions and coverbs
19.1Coverbs
19.1.1Coverbs of place and time
19.1.2Coverbs of methods and means
19.1.3Coverbs of human exchange and service
19.1.4Coverbs of reference
19.1.5Coverbs and comparison
19.2Disyllabic prepositions
20 Bˇa and bèi constructions
20.1The baˇ construction
20.1.1The bk construction and complements
20.1.3Bk and resultative complements
20.1.4Nòng and Gko in bk sentences
20.1.5Negative bk sentences
20.1.6Bk and modal verbs
20.1.7Bk and indefinite reference
20.2The bèi construction
20.2.1Ràng and jiào
20.2.2The bèi construction with an agent
20.2.3Negative bèi sentences
20.3The bèi construction versus the notional passives
21Serial constructions
21.1General features of serial constructions
21.2Semantic varieties in serial constructions
21.3Adjectives or state verbs in serial constructions
21.4Dative constructions
21.5Causative constructions
21.5.1Qmng in a causative construction
21.5.2Extended causative constructions
21.6Extended serial constructions
22Emphasis and the intensiyer shì
22.1 Shì as an intensifier
22.2The shì . . . de construction
22.2.2Shì...de construction and bù
22.3 Shìwithout de for progression and projection
22.3.1Contexts for shì(withoutde) sentences
22.3.2Shìand comparison
22.3.3Shìand negation
22.4 Shìand topic-comment sentences
22.4.1Shìimplying reservation
22.5Repetition and emphasis
23Abbreviation and omission
23.1Three types of abbreviation
23.3Contextual abbreviation
23.4Cotextual omissions
23.4.1Cotextual omissions and headwords
23.4.2Cotextual omissions in answers
24Composite sentences: conjunctions and conjunctives
24.1Types of composite sentence
24.2Conjunctions and conjunctives
24.2.2Paired conjunctives
24.3Composite sentences as parallel structures
24.4Verbs taking object clauses
25.1Exclamations
25.1.1Exclamations with tài
25.2Interjections
25.2.1Tone variations in interjections
25.3Appositions
25.4Apostrophe
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Chinese Essential Grammar 2nd Ed

Chinese Essential Grammar 2nd Ed

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Published by: bingoli on Oct 31, 2011
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07/23/2013

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