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Introduction

Introduction

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Published by: api-27176519 on Oct 18, 2008
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03/18/2014

Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch \u2013 XXIX
1
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch \u2013 XXIX
2
1.1 Introduction

The idea of running an icebreaking vessel with the stern end with propellers first is over 100 years old. Since 1995 the operability of Azipod propulsion in severe ice conditions has been overwhelming. The tankers Uikku and Lunni (Ice class Tankers) have made several voyages in the Northern Sea Route. Sometimes the operation has required them to turn the ship around and break ice running astern. The experience during the second half of the last decade, both full-scale experience and further development of the concept utilizing model test, has made it more and more obvious that the Double Acting Ship concept has several advantages.

Before any big tankers could be designed and built, a lot of development work had to be done. Questions like stern shape, ice loads on propulsion unit and hull, behaviour in ballast condition and number of propellers had to be dealt with. The first Double Acting Tanker was built at the Sumitomo Heavy Industries yard, Japan and developed by Kvaerner Masa-Yards, Finland. It was delivered in the year 2002 and subsequently its sister ship Mastera delivered in the year 2003.

The Development of DAT:

Traditionally ice breaking ships have been quite poor in open water. The total efficiency has been 20-40 % less than a good open water vessel. This has been mainly due to the bow forms, which have been developed to break thicker and thicker ice. Open water characteristics have suffered. Several icebreakers have had propellers fitted to the bow. These propellers create a strong water stream, reducing friction and generating a pressure drop under the ice, helping the breaking process. This process is also present when going astern in ice and therefore, rather than fitting a bow propeller, the vessel goes astern to create the same phenomena. The use of Azipod has enabled this design to be much improved and fairing of the hull lines aft to provide icebreaking capability.

Traditional propulsion did not allow much further development in icebreaking when running astern. The development in the 90\u2019s with electric podded propulsion devices, the model and full-scale testing and building of ships with podded drives, has lead to new ship concepts. In open water the vessel runs ahead and in severe ice conditions the vessel runs astern. The bow form is optimized like a conventional tanker and the stern is shaped like an icebreaker\u2019s bow.

This gives following advantages:

\u2022Hull form can be optimized for all conditions.
\u2022 Total economy has improved.
\u2022Improved Manoeuvrability.
\u2022 More freedom of design.
\u2022 Low Ice resistance (up to 50% in certain ice conditions) as well as low

power requirements (up to 40% less than conventional ice breaking tankers)
\u2022 No need to stop propeller for reversing
\u2022 No ramming in Double Acting operation.
Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch \u2013 XXIX
3
Fig 1.1 Ice breaking capability of DAT

In the studies made so far and experience gained, it can be noted that some kind of revolution has taken place in ice navigation. Apart from Icebreaking tankers and icebreakers the concept has a huge potential when new ships are designed for operations in restricted waters (including canals), where traditional configurations have found it difficult to cope with the ice. The possibility to direct the propeller water flow to \u201ceat\u201d ice and push it away, opens new avenues. This way ships that were not able to move in midwinter conditions in inland canals were able to proceed through the most severe conditions.

The vessel is designed to follow the Double Acting principle and the hull form is designed accordingly. The vessel will be fitted with a bulbous bow. The bow shape is designed to be capable of operating in light ice conditions related to the Baltic Sea. The stern shape is of ice breaking type, planned to operate independently in the most severe ice conditions of the Baltic Sea.

1.2 Field search:

\u2022 Ice conditions
\u2022 Ice properties
\u2022 Route selection
\u2022 Design basis development

The Baltic Sea:

The Baltic is a young sea, one of the youngest on the Earth. Over the last million years of our planet\u2019s history, areas of northern Europe, including the present-day Baltic basin and the territory of Poland, were repeatedly covered by ice sheets. During each ice-sheet advance, the Baltic area was strongly eroded. It resulted in the formation of a vast depression, occupied today by the Baltic Sea. The Baltic Sea is a brackish inland

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