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Table Of Contents

General Considerations in Anatomy of Animals
Anatomical terminology
Topographical terms
Outer body form – shape and general appearance of horse and dog
The skeleton
Bone structure (see Fig. 1-L)
Blood supply to bone (see Fig. 1-K)
Bone composition
Bone development
Components of the skeleton
Animal Locomotion
Animal movement: General considerations
A: Regional movements
B. Whole body movement in the vertical plane
C. Whole body movement in horizontal plane: locomotion
The locomotory system
- bones
A. Bones
C. Muscles
Principles of locomotion
A. Basic laws
B. The animal as a self-propelling machine
C. The limbs of mammals (Physical considerations including mechanical forces)
Evolution of locomotion
A. Introduction
B. Underlying principles
C. Evolutionary changes in bones in cursorial adaptation of the mammals
D) Effect of evolutionaly limb rotation on muscles, nerves and blood vessels
Anatomy of the Thoracic Limb of the Dog
The forelimb of the dog
1. Bones and muscles
A. Muscles of the limb (See Fig. 3-A)
B. Bones of the forelimb
2. The limbs of the dog – nerves
Innervation of the limbs
Cutaneous (sensory) innervation of the trunk and limbs
Cutaneous nerves of the trunk (Fig 3-L)
3. The forelimbs of the dog – Joints
The shoulder joint (Fig. 3-O)
The elbow joint (Fig. 3-P)
The carpal joints (Fig. 3-Q)
Joints of the manus (Fig. 3-Q)
4. The forelimbs of the dog – blood vessels
A. Arteries (see Fig 3-R)
B. Veins (see Fig 3-S)
5. The limbs of the dog – the paws
Main characteristics of the paw
Blood supply and innervation of the digits
Relationship of muscles and tendons of the digits
Anatomy of the Thoracic Limb of the Horse
Cursorial adaptation of the horse
Bones of the thoracic limb (Figure 4.A)
Modifications in the bones of the fore limb (Fig 4.A)
Bones of lower limb (Figs 4.C and 4.D)
Synovial joints of the fore limb
Shoulder joint
Elbow joint
Carpal joint
Joints of manus (Fig 4.F)
Metacarpophalangeal joint (fetlock)
Proximal interphalangeal (pastern) joint
Distal interphalangeal (coffin) joint
Annular ligaments of distal limb (Fig 4.I)
Muscles of horse limbs
General points
Muscles of the thoracic limb
Synovial bursae and tendon sheaths
Synovial bursae
Synovial tendon sheaths
The stay apparatus
A. Stay apparatus of fore limb (Fig 4.N)
B. Suspensory apparatus (Fig 4.O)
Blood supply to the limbs
Arteries of the fore limb (Figs 4.P and 4.Q)
Arteries of digit and hoof (Figs 4.Q and 4.R)
Veins of limbs (Fig 4-R)
Venous plexuses of the hoof
Innervation of horse limbs
Innervation of forelimb (Fig 4.S)
Innervation of forefoot (Fig 4.T)
A. Muscles of the limb (See Fig. 5-A)
B. Bones of the hind limb
2. Nerves
Cutaneous (sensory) innervation of the hind limb
Cutaneous (sensory) branches of the major nerves of the hindlimb
3. Joints
Sacroiliac joint (Fig. 5-P)
Hip joint (Fig. 5-Pa and b)
Stifle joint (Fig. 5-Q)
Tibial-fibular articulation
The tarsal joint (Fig. 5-R)
Joints of the Pes
4. Blood vessels
5. The paw
Anatomy of the Pelvic Limb of the Horse
Bones of pelvic limb (Fig 6-A)
Synovial joints of the pelvic limb
Sacroiliac joint
Coxofemoral (hip) joint (Fig 6-C)
Stifle joint (Fig 6-I)
Tarsal (hock) joint (Fig 6-B)
Muscles of pelvic limb
1. Muscles of rump and cranial thigh (Fig 4-J)
2. Muscles of medial thigh
3. Muscles of caudal thigh (hamstrings)
4. Dorsolateral muscles of crus
5. Caudal muscles of crus
Synovial bursae of the hind limb (Fig 6-F)
Tendon sheaths of the hind limb
The stay apparatus of the hind limb (Fig 6-H)
Blood supply to the hind limbs
Arteries of hind limb (Figs 6-J and 6-K)
Veins of hind limb
Innervation of hind limb (Fig 6-L)
Innervation of hind foot (Fig 6-M)
Anatomy of the Head, Neck and Trunk
The back and neck in locomotion
General considerations
Mechanical models of the back and neck
Major anatomical features of relevance
Bones (see chapter 1)
Thoracic and abdominal anatomy
Relationship of the teeth to the jaws
Artificial gaits
Conformation and gait
Conformation of foot
Conformation of limbs
Conformation of body
Anatomy of the Foot and Integument of Horse and Dog
Dissipation of concussive forces in the foot
The dog
The horse
Anatomy of the hoof
Anti-concussive mechanisms in the horse
Use of nerve blocks in the distal limb of the horse
Hair growth and distribution
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Comparative Animal Anatomy

Comparative Animal Anatomy

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Published by Mohammed Anuz

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Published by: Mohammed Anuz on Nov 01, 2011
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