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Miller the Zoology Book 1

Miller the Zoology Book 1



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Miller−Harley: Zoology,Fifth EditionFront MatterPreface
© The McGraw−HillCompanies, 2001
The planning for the first edition of 
began in the late1980s at a time when instructors and their students had few op-tions in the choice of a general zoology textbook. In the first foureditions of 
we have tried to present zoology as an excitingand dynamic scientific field. We have made very deliberatechoices in content and style to enhance the readability of thetextbook, realizing that authority and detail of content are of lit-tle consequence if students find the book difficult to use. Many of these choices have been challenging, and the labor involved hasat times been exhausting. With each edition we have receivedstudent and instructor feedback that has confirmed our approachand rewarded our efforts. We believe that the decisions we, andour colleagues at McGraw-Hill, have made have largely been theright decisions. This is why we are privileged to have a fifth edi-tion of 
in your hands, while other books have not survivedthe rigors of “textbook selection.”Our goals in preparing the fifth edition of 
were thesame as in previous editions. We prepared an introductory generalzoology textbook that we believe is manageable in size and adapt-able to a variety of course formats. We have retained the friendly,informative writing style that has attracted instructors and stu-dents through the first four editions. Users of the fourth editionwill quickly notice that the fifth edition of 
is 200 pagesshorter. This change is in response to user requests for a text thatis less expensive and more useful in one-semester course formats.Course sequences at many colleges and universities dictate thatbiological principles are taught in general biology courses ratherthan general zoology courses. All of these factors were carefullyconsidered in the revision of this latest edition of 
We have retained the evolutionary and ecological focus of 
believing that these perspectives captivate students and arefundamental to understanding the unifying principles of zoologyand the remarkable diversity within the animal kingdom. Wehave enhanced the ecological perspective by expanding the use of “Wildlife Alerts,” which we included in a limited fashion in thefourth edition. Wildlife Alerts are now incorporated into each of the first 22 chapters of the book, and feature some issues related toendangered and threatened species of animals. In most cases,these readings depict the plight of a selected animal species. Inother cases, they depict broader ecosystem issues, or questions re-lated to preserving genetic diversity within species. In all cases,the purpose of these Wildlife Alerts is to increase student aware-ness of the need to preserve animal habits and species.
is organized into three parts. Part One covers thecommon life processes, including cell and tissue structure andfunction, the genetic basis of evolution, and the evolutionary andecological principles that unify all life.Part Two is the survey of animals, emphasizing evolutionaryand ecological relationships, aspects of animal organization thatunite major animal phyla, and animal adaptations. All of thechapters in Part Two have been carefully updated, including newexamples and photographs. The coverage of animal classificationand organization in Chapter 7 has been expanded from previouseditions to include more background on cladistics and enhancedcoverage of protostome/deuterostome relationships. As in previ-ous editions, the remaining survey chapters (8
22) include clado-grams to depict evolutionary relationships, full-color artwork andphotographs, and lists of phylum characteristics.Part Three covers animal form and function using a com-parative approach. This approach includes descriptions and full-color artwork that depict the evolutionary changes in the struc-ture and function of selected organ systems. Part Three includesan appropriate balance between invertebrate and vertebrate de-scriptions.
“Wildlife Alert” boxes now appear in all of the survey chap-ters, including many that are new to the 5th edition. Most of these readings feature a particular species, but some feature alarger ecosystem concern.Chapter 1 has been revised to focus on the evolutionary andecological emphasis of the book.Instead of beginning Chapter 3 with classical (Mendelian) ge-netics, we begin with molecular genetics and explain classicalgenetics in terms of DNA structure and function. The con-cept of dominance is explained in molecular terms.Chapter 4 now begins with a discussion of evidence of evolu-tion, to help students relate the evidence to the process.A section on “Higher Animal Taxonomy” is now included inChapter 7, including a new table of higher taxonomic group-ings, based on the latest information from cladistic analyses of the animal kingdom.Chapter 18 contains new information from molecular andcladistic studies on the origin of vertebrates and the relation-ship of vertebrates to other chordates. New information is alsopresented on the evolution of terrestrialism in vertebrates.Chapter 19 contains a new section covering amphibians inperil, exploring possible reasons that amphibians around theworld are declining at an alarming rate.
Supplementary materials are available to assist instructors with theirpresentations and general course management, to augment students’learning opportunities. The usefulness of these supplementsis
Harley: Zoology,Fifth EditionFront MatterPreface
© The McGraw
HillCompanies, 2001
Test Item File is also available for instructors. Thiscontains approximately 50 multiple-choice questions for eachchapter.
General Zoology Study Guide,
prepared by Jane Aloi andGina Erickson, contains subject-by-subject summaries, ques-tions, and learning activities.A set of 100 full-color acetate
is available tosupplement classroom lectures.
General Zoology Laboratory Manual,
fifth edition, byStephen A. Miller, is an excellent corollary to the text and in-corporates many learning aids. This edition includes new il-lustrations and photographs, plus activities on scientificmethod, cladistics, ecological and evolutionary principles, andanimal structure and function. A
Laboratory ResourceGuide,
available within the Online Learning Center, providesinformation about materials and procedures, and answers toworksheet questions that accompany the lab exercises.
Digital Zoology
is a new and exciting interactive product de-signed to help you to make the most of your zoology classesand laboratory sessions. This program contains interactivecladograms, laboratory modules, video, interactive quizzes,hundreds of photographs, a full glossary, and much detailedinformation about the diversity and evolution of the animalsthat we find on the planet. To find out the latest news onthisever-expanding product, log on to www.mhhe.com/digitalzoologyand find out how to get your copy.The
Zoology Visual Resource Library
is a dual-platformCD-ROM that allows instructors to search with key words orterms and access 1,000 images to illustrate classroom lectures,with just the click of a mouse. It contains images from fourMcGraw-Hill textbooks in the zoology field.Available through the
Online Learning Center, the
Zoology Essential Study Partner
is a complete, interactivestudy tool offering animations and learning activities to helpstudents understand complex zoology concepts. This valuableresource also includes self-quizzing to help students revieweach topic.
is an electronic meeting place for studentsand instructors. Its breadth and depth go beyond our OnlineLearning Center to offer six major areas of up-to-date and rel-evant information: Faculty Club, Student Center, News Brief-ing Room, BioLabs, Lifelong Learning Warehouse, and R & DCenter.
is the solution for professors who need to build acourse website. The following features are now available toprofessors:The PageOut Library offers instant access to fully loadedcourse websites with no work required on the instructor’spart.Courses can now be password protected.Professors can now upload, store, and manage up to 10MBof data.Professors can copy their course and share it with col-leagues or use it as a foundation for next semester.Short on time? Let us do the work. Our McGraw-Hill ser-vice team is ready to build your PageOut website, andnow greatly enhanced with the availability of both online andprinted resources. As a part of the fifth edition revision, chapterson cell chemistry, energy and enzymes, embryology, and animalbehavior—along with numerous boxed readings and pedagogicalelements—have been moved to the Online Learning Center. Thiscontent-rich website is located at www.mhhe.com/zoology
justclick on this book’s title.
Both instructors and students can take advantage of numerousteaching and learning aids within this book’s Online LearningCenter.
Instructor Resources
Instructor’s ManualLaboratory Resource GuideZoology Visual Resource Library (VRL), containing 1,000images for classroom presentationPowerPoint Lecture Slides
Student and Instructor Resources
Interactive Cladistics LaboratoryChapters on:Chapter 30: The Chemical Basis of Animal LifeChapter 31: Energy and Enzymes: Life’s Driving and Con-trolling ForcesChapter 32: How Animals Harvest Energy Stored in NutrientsChapter 33: EmbryologyChapter 34: Animal BehaviorBoxed ReadingsSuggested ReadingsReadings on Lesser-Known InvertebratesQuizzingKey Terms FlashcardsZoology Essential Study Partner (ESP)AnimationsFree Zoology Screen SaverAll of these tools, and even more, are available to you with thistext. To access these resources, go to www.mhhe.com/zoologyandclick on the title of this book. (Also, see pages xvi–xx for moredetails.)
The following items may accompany
Please consult yourMcGraw-Hill representative for policies, prices, and availability assome restrictions may apply.
An Instructor’s Manual,
prepared by Jane Aloi Horlings, isavailable for instructors within the Online Learning Center. Itprovides examples of lecture/reading schedules for courseswith various emphases. In addition, each chapter contains adetailed outline, purpose, objectives, key terms, summary, re-sources for audiovisual materials and computer software.
Harley: Zoology,Fifth EditionFront MatterPreface
© The McGraw
HillCompanies, 2001
provide content and any necessary training. Learn moreabout PageOut and other McGraw-Hill digital solutions atwww.mhhe.com/solutions.
We wish to thank the reviewers who provided detailed analysis of the text during development. In the midst of their busy teachingand research schedules, they took time to read our manuscript andto offer constructive advice that greatly improved this fifth edition.
 Jane Aloi Horlings,
Saddleback College;
Arthur L. Alt,
Universityof Great Falls;
Rodney P. Anderson,
Ohio Northern University.
Iona Baldridge,
Lubbock Christian University;
 Jerry Beilby,
 Northwestern College;
Barry Boatwright,
Gadsden State Commu-nity College;
Susan Bornstein-Forst,
Marian College;
Mimi Bres,
Prince George’s Community College;
David Brooks,
Quachita Bap-tist University;
Richard D. Brown,
Brunswick Community College;
Gary Brusca,
Humboldt State University;
 Frank J. Bulow,
Ten-nessee Technological University;
Paul J. Bybee,
Utah Valley StateCollege.
 Fernando Cofresi-Sala,
Pontifical Catholic University of Puerto Rico;
Sarah Cooper,
Beaver College;
Neil W. Crenshaw,
In-dian River Community College;
Mary Carla Curran,
University of South Carolina at Beaufort.
Armando A. de la Cruz,
Mississippi State University;
 JamesN. DeVries,
Lancaster Bible College;
Donald Dorfman,
Tom Dudley,
 Angelina College.
Bruce Edinger,
Salem-Teikyo University;
Adria A. Elskus,
State University of New York, Stony Brook;
DuWayne C. Englert,
Southern Illinois University at Carbondale.
Rob Fitch,
Wenatchee Valley College.
M.J. Galliher,
Cochise College;
Thaddeus Gish,
St. Mary’sCollege;
 Jim Goetze,
Laredo Community College;
Walter M. Godl-berg,
Florida International University;
Edward J. Greding, Jr.,
DelMar College.
Paul A. Haefner, Jr.,
Rochester Institute of Technology;
Salt Lake Community College;
Willard N. Harman,
State University of New York, Oneonta;
Mary D. Healey,
Gary A. Heidt,
University of Arkansas, Little Rock;
University of Mary Hardin-Baylor;
Nan Ho,
Las PositasCollege;
 Jeff Holmquist,
University of Puerto Rico-Mayaquez.
Dan F. Ippolito,
 Anderson University.
Kathryn Kavanagh,
Boston University;
Sekender K. Khan,
Elizabeth City State University;
Anna Koshy,
Houston CommunityCollege.
Matthew Landau,
Richard Stockton College;
Stephen C.Landers,
Troy State University;
Larry N. Latson,
Lipscomb Univer-sity;
Standley E. Lewis,
St. Cloud State University;
 North Carolina Community College.
Paul C. Makarewicz,
Three Rivers Community Technical Col-lege;
Sarantos John Manos,
Massasoit Community College;
RobertC. Maris,
Mansfield University of Pennsylvania;
Vicki J. Martin,
University of Notre Dame;
 Joel M. McKinney,
South Plains College;
Dwayne Meadows,
Weber State University;
Tina Miller-Way,
Uni-versity of Mobile;
Ronald S. Mollick,
Christopher Newport Univer-sity;
Thomas Moon,
California University of Pennsylvania;
 John F.Morrissey,
Hofstra University;
Tim R. Mullican,
Dakota WesleyanUniversity;
G. Steven Murphree,
Belmont University.
Maha Nagarajan,
Wilberforce University.
 John F. Pilger,
 Agnes Scott College;
Kathryn Stanley Pod-wall,
 Nassau Community College.
Mohammad A Rana,
St. Josephs’s College;
Lois GalgayReckitt,
University of Southern Maine;
 John Rickett,
University of  Arkansas, Little Rock;
Richard G. Rose,
West Valley College;
Vaughn M. Rundquist,
Montana State University-Northern.
Neil Sabine,
Indiana University East;
Neil B. Schanker,
College of The Siskiyous;
 Fred H. Schindler,
Indian Hills Commu-nity College;
Michelle Schoon,
Cowley County Community Col-lege;
Erik P. Scully,
Towson University;
Richard H. Shippee,
Vin-cennes University;
Sandra E. Schumway,
Long Island UniversitySouthampton College;
Doug Sizemore,
Bevill State Community Col-lege;
Alan F. Smith,
Mercer University;
Gregory B. Smith,
EdisonCommunity College;
Susan E. Smith,
Massasoit Community Col-lege;
Scott C. Swanson,
Ohio Northern University.
 John Tibbs,
University of Montana;
S. Gregory Tolley,
Florida Gulf Coast University;
Richard E. Trout,
Oklahoma CityCommunity College;
Geraldine W. Twitty,
Howard University.
Dwina W. Willis,
Freed-Hardeman University;
 Jeffrey ScottWooters,
Pensacola Junior College.
Robert W. Yost,
Indiana University-Purdue University.
David D. Zeigler,
University of North Carolina, Pembroke.
The publication of a text requires the efforts of many people. Weare grateful for the work of our colleagues at McGraw-Hill, whohave shown extraordinary patience, skill, and commitment to thistext. Marge Kemp, Sponsoring Editor, has helped shape
from its earliest planning stages. Our Development Editor, Donna Nemmers, helped make the production of the fifth edition re-markably smooth. Donna kept us on schedule and the productionmoving in the plethora of directions that are nearly unimaginableto us. Kay Brimeyer served as our project manager. We are gratefulfor her skilled coordination of the many tasks involved with thepublishing of this edition of 
Finally, but most importantly, we wish to extend apprecia-tion to our families for their patience and encouragement. JaniceA. Miller lived with this text through many months of planningand writing. She died suddenly 2 months before the first editionwas released. Our wives, Carol A. Miller and Jane R. Harley, havebeen supportive throughout the revision process. We appreciatethe sacrifices that our families have made during the writing andrevision of this text. We dedicate this book to the memory of Jan,and to our families.

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