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SAGAR
SAGAR
BIOMECHANICS
The study of mechanics in the human body is referred to as
biomechanics.
Biomechanics
2
Kinematics
Kinetics
\ue001Kinematics:
Kinematics is the area of biomechanics that includes descriptions of
motion without regard for the forces producing the motion. [It studies only the
movements of the body.]
Kinematics variables for a given movement may include following:

\ue000Type of motion.
\ue000Location of motion.
\ue000Direction of motion.
\ue000Magnitude of motion.
\ue000 Rate or Duration of motion.

\ue000 Type of Motion:
There are four types of movement that can be attributed to any rigid
object or four pathways through which a rigid object can travel.
\ue001 Rotatory (Angular) Motion:
It is movement of an object or segment around a fixed axis in a curved
path. Each point on the object or segment moves through the same angle, at
the same time, at a constant distance from the axis of rotation.
Eg \u2013 Each point in the forearm/hand segment moves through the same angle,
in the same time, at a constant distance from the axis of rotation during
flexion at the elbow joint.
\ue001 Translatory (Linear) Motion:
It is the movement of an object or segment in a straight line. Each point

on the object moves through the same distance, at the same time, in parallel paths. Translation of a body segment without some concomitant rotation rarely occurs.

Eg \u2013 The movement of the combined forearm/hand segment to grasp an

object, in this all points on the forearm/hand segment move through the same distance at the same time but the translation of the forearm/hand segment is actually produced by rotation of both the shoulder and the elbow joints.

SAGAR
3

True translatory motion of a bony lever without concomitant joint rotation can occur to a limited extent when a bone is pulled directly away from its joint or pushed directly toward its joint. Another form of translation could occur if the articular surface of one bone moved parallel to the flat

articular surface of a contiguous bone. This type of translatory motion of a
bone is known as gliding. In reality, however, most joint surfaces are at least
slightly curved, so most joint glides are not pure translatory motion.

Rotatory and translatory motions in human joints most commonly occur together. Although rotation may predominate at most joints, there is enough concomitant gliding for the axis of rotation to move in space. When an

object rotates about an axis and moves through space at the same time, the
object describes a pathway known as curvilinear motion.
Eg \u2013 The forearm/hand segment holding the glass is rotating around the

elbow joint axis while the elbow joint is being moved forward in space by shoulder flexion. Because the elbow joint axis is translating at the same time that the forearm/hand segment is rotating around it, the forearm/hand segment holding the glass describes a parabolic pathway.

Curvilinear motion in the human body is the most common path that a
rigid bony segment takes at a joint.
\ue000Location of Motion:

All descriptions of the human body are based on the assumption that the person is standing erect, with the upper limbs by the sides and face and palms of the hands directed forward. This position of the body is known as anatomical position.

An axis is a line about which movement takes place and a plane is the
surface which lies at right angles to it and in which the movement takes place.
Motion at a joint may be described as occurring in the following planes and
around following axes:
\ue000 Asagittal or antero-posterior axis lies parallel to the sagittal suture of the
in a frontal plane. Abduction and adduction (except pf the thumb) and
side flexion movements are said to take about a sagittal axis and in a
frontal plane.
\ue000 Afrontal or coronal axis lies parallel to the transverse suture of the skull.
It is also horizontal and at right angle to the sagittal axis. Movement about
frontal axis occurs in a sagittal plane. Flexion and extension (except of the
thumb) occurs about a frontal axis and in a sagittal plane.
\ue000 A vertical axis lies parallel to the line of gravity and movement about it
occurs in a horizontal plane. Rotation occurs about a vertical axis and in
a horizontal plane.
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