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De Cuong Triet Hoc 2006

De Cuong Triet Hoc 2006

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Published by api-3822154

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Published by: api-3822154 on Oct 18, 2008
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03/18/2014

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1. Ph\u00b9m tr\u00ef v\u00cbt ch\u00cat
* Tri\u00d5t h\u00e4c duy v\u00cbt c\u00e6 \u00ae\u00b9i (Hy L\u00b9p-La M\u00b7 + Trung Hoa c\u00e6 \u00ae\u00b9i)
-cha c\u00e3 kh\u00b8i ni\u00d6m v\u00cbt ch\u00cat nh m\u00e9t ph\u00b9m tr\u00ef tri\u00d5t h\u00e4c
- \u00ae\u00e5ng nh\u00cat v\u00cbt ch\u00cat v\u00edi nh\u00f7ng v\u00cbt th\u00d3 c\u00f4 th\u00d3, c\u00ac s\u00eb \u00ae\u00c7u ti\u00aan c\u00f1a m\u00e4i t\u00e5n t\u00b9i
- quan ni\u00d6m v\u00d2 v\u00cbt ch\u00cat c\u00f1a c\u00b8c nh\u00b5 duy v\u00cbt c\u00e6 \u00ae\u00b9i mang t\u00ddnhtr\u00f9c quan c\u00b6m t\u00ddnh
* Tri\u00d5t h\u00e4c duy v\u00cbt si\u00aau h\u00d7nh (th\u00d5 k\u00fb 17, 18)
- \u00a7\u00e5ng nh\u00catv\u00cbt ch\u00cat v\u00edi m\u00e9t d\u00b9ng c\u00f4 th\u00d3 c\u00f1a n\u00e3 l\u00b5 nguy\u00aan t\u00f6\ue000 l\u00b5 quan ni\u00d6m c\u00e3 t\u00ddnh
si\u00aau h\u00d7nh
\ue000 h\u00b9n ch\u00d5 l\u00edn, t\u00c7m kh\u00b8i qu\u00b8t cha v\u00eet tri\u00d5t h\u00e4c duy v\u00cbt c\u00e6 \u00ae\u00b9i
- Trong th\u00eai gian d\u00b5i, tr\u00eb th\u00b5nh truy\u00d2n th\u00e8ng trong t duy c\u00f1a c\u00b8c nh\u00b5 tri\u00d5t h\u00e4c duy v\u00cbt
v\u00b5 khoa h\u00e4c t\u00f9 nhi\u00aan sau n\u00b5y.
- c\u00b8c t t\u00ebng v\u00d2 nguy\u00aan t\u00f6 c\u00f1a L\u00ac-x\u00ddp, \u00a7\u00aa-m\u00ab-cr\u00ddt \u00ae\u00b7 \u00ae\u00eec Ga-li-l\u00aa, \u00a7\u00d2-c\u00b8c-t\u00ac, Niu-t\u00acn, B\u00aa-
c\u00acn, H\u00e8p-b\u00ac... kh\u00bcng \u00ae\u00denh v\u00b5 ph\u00b8t tri\u00d3n h\u00acn n\u00f7a
\ue000 th\u00d0 k\u00fb 19, kh\u00f1ng ho\u00b6ng v\u00d7 quan ni\u00d6m v\u00cbt ch\u00cat cha chu\u00c8n, do kh\u00abng hi\u00d3u ph\u00d0p duy
v\u00cbt bi\u00d6n ch\u00f8ng, v\u00c9n \u00ae\u00e8ng nh\u00cat v\u00cbt ch\u00cat v\u00edi nguy\u00aan t\u00f6 ho\u00c6c v\u00cbt ch\u00cat v\u00edi m\u00e9t thu\u00e9c t\u00ddnh
ph\u00e6 bi\u00d5n c\u00f1a c\u00b8c v\u00cbt th\u00d3 \u00ae\u00e3 l\u00b5 kh\u00e8i l\u00eeng
* Tri\u00d5t h\u00e4c cu\u00e8i th\u00d5 k\u00fb 19, \u00ae\u00c7u th\u00d5 k\u00fb 20

- H\u00b5ng lo\u00b9t ph\u00b8t minh r\u00cat quan tr\u00e4ng trong v\u00cbt l\u00fd h\u00e4c \u00aeem l\u00b9i nh\u00f7ng hi\u00d3u bi\u00d5t m\u00edi, s\u00a9u s\u00bec v\u00d2 c\u00cau tr\u00f3c c\u00f1a th\u00d5 gi\u00ac\u00dd v\u00cbt ch\u00cat\ue000 \u00ae\u00b6o l\u00e9n t duy v\u00d2 v\u00cbt ch\u00cat, kh\u00f1ng ho\u00b6ng trong khoa h\u00e4c t\u00f9 nhi\u00aan v\u00b5 tri\u00d5t h\u00e4c (ph\u00b8t hi\u00d6n ra c\u00cau tr\u00f3c m\u00edi c\u00f1a v\u00cbt ch\u00cat)\ue000 t\u00b9o th\u00b5nh cu\u00e9c c\u00b8ch m\u00b9ng trong khoa h\u00e4c t\u00f9 nhi\u00aan.

VD: Ph\u00b8t hi\u00d6n ra tia X, hi\u00d6n t\u00eeng ph\u00e3ng x\u00b9, ph\u00b8t hi\u00d6n ra \u00aei\u00d6n t\u00f6 \u2026
- nh\u00f7ng ph\u00b8t minh trong v\u00cbt l\u00fd h\u00e4c cu\u00e8i th\u00d5 k\u00fb 19, \u00ae\u00c7u 20 t\u00b9o \u00aei\u00d2u ki\u00d6n cho ch\u00f1
ngh\u00dca duy t\u00a9m ch\u00f1 quan t\u00can c\u00abng v\u00b5o tri\u00d5t h\u00e4c duy v\u00cbt si\u00aau h\u00d7nh, v\u00e8n \u00ae\u00e5ng
nh\u00catv\u00cbt ch\u00cat v\u00edi nh\u00f7ng d\u00b9ng c\u00f4 th\u00d3 c\u00f1a v\u00cbt ch\u00cat, v\u00edi nh\u00f7ng thu\u00e9c t\u00ddnh c\u00f1a v\u00cbt
ch\u00cat.
- Ch\u00f1 ngh\u00dca duy t\u00a9m ch\u00f1 quan: c\u00b8c ph\u00b8t minh \u00ae\u00e3 ch\u00f8ng t\u00e1 "v\u00cbt ch\u00cat ti\u00aau tan m\u00cat"\ue000
n\u00d2n t\u00b6ng c\u00f1a ch\u00f1 ngh\u00dca duy v\u00cbt b\u00de s\u00f4p \u00ae\u00e6 ho\u00b5n to\u00b5n.
\ue000 \u00ae\u00dfi h\u00e1i \u00ae\u00cau tranh ch\u00e8ng ch\u00f1 ngh\u00dca duy t\u00a9m, kh\u00bec ph\u00f4c kh\u00f1ng ho\u00b6ng, b\u00b6o v\u00d6, ph\u00b8t
tri\u00d3n khoa h\u00e4c t\u00f9 nhi\u00aan, tri\u00d5t h\u00e4c duy v\u00cbt trong giai \u00aeo\u00b9n m\u00edi.
* \u00a7\u00denh ngh\u00dca c\u00f1a L\u00aa-nin
- C\u00ac s\u00eb \u00ae\u00d3 t\u00f5 \u00ae\u00e3 L\u00aanin \u00aea ra \u00ae\u00denh ngh\u00dca
+ K\u00d5 th\u00f5a nh\u00f7ng m\u00c6t t\u00ddch c\u00f9c, nh\u00f7ng t\u00b8c nh\u00a9n h\u00eep l\u00fd trong quan ni\u00d6m c\u00f1a
nh\u00f7ng nh\u00b5 THDV tr\u00edc \u00ae\u00e3 v\u00d2 VC
+ Tr\u00aan c\u00ac s\u00eb kh\u00b8i qu\u00b8t nh\u00f7ng th\u00b5nh t\u00f9u m\u00edi nh\u00cat c\u00f1a khoa h\u00e4c t\u00f9 nhi\u00aan cu\u00e8i TK 19,
\u00ae\u00c7u TK20
+ Ph\u00aa ph\u00b8n CNDT v\u00d2 vi\u00d6c b\u00b8c b\u00e1 quan ni\u00d6m v\u00cbt ch\u00cat c\u00f1a CNDV.
Trong t\u00b8c ph\u00c8m "Ch\u00f1 ngh\u00dca duy v\u00cbt v\u00b5 ch\u00f1 ngh\u00dca kinh nghi\u00d6m ph\u00aa ph\u00b8n", L\u00aa-nin
\u00ae\u00b7 \u00aea ra m\u00e9t \u00ae\u00denh ngh\u00dca to\u00b5n di\u00d6n, s\u00a9u s\u00bec v\u00b5 khoa h\u00e4c v\u00d2 ph\u00b9m tr\u00ef v\u00cbt ch\u00cat
1

"V\u00cbt ch\u00cat l\u00b5 m\u00e9t ph\u00b9m tr\u00ef tri\u00d5t h\u00e4c d\u00efng \u00ae\u00d3 ch\u00d8 th\u00f9c t\u00b9i kh\u00b8ch quan \u00ae\u00eec \u00aeem l\u00b9i cho con ng\u00eai trong c\u00b6m gi\u00b8c, \u00ae\u00eec c\u00b6m gi\u00b8c c\u00f1a ch\u00f3ng ta ch\u00d0p l\u00b9i, ph\u00b6n \u00b8nh v\u00b5 \u00ae\u00eec t\u00e5n t\u00b9i kh\u00abng l\u00d6 thu\u00e9c v\u00b5o c\u00b6m gi\u00b8c"1

* Ph\u00a9n t\u00ddch n\u00e9i dung \u00ae\u00denh ngh\u00dca
- C\u00e3 t\u00ddnh khoa h\u00e4c, t\u00ddnh kh\u00b8i qu\u00b8t cao\ue000 L\u00b5m cho quan ni\u00d6m duy v\u00cbt bi\u00d6n ch\u00f8ng kh\u00b8c
v\u00d2 ch\u00cat so v\u00edi duy v\u00cbt si\u00aau h\u00d7nh tr\u00edc \u00ae\u00e3.

+ v\u00cbt ch\u00cat l\u00b5 m\u00e9t ph\u00b9m tr\u00ef tri\u00d5t h\u00e4c: L\u00aa-nin \u00ae\u00dfi h\u00e1i c\u00c7n ph\u00a9n bi\u00d6t v\u00cbt ch\u00cat v\u00edi t\u00ddnh c\u00b8ch l\u00b5 ph\u00b9m tr\u00ef tri\u00d5t h\u00e4c v\u00edi c\u00b8c kh\u00b8i ni\u00d6m c\u00f1a khoa h\u00e4c t\u00f9 nhi\u00aan \u00cc c\u00b8c \u00ae\u00e8i t\u00eeng, s\u00f9v\u00cbt c\u00f4 th\u00d3 \u00eb c\u00b8c tr\u00d7nh \u00ae\u00e9 k\u00d5t c\u00cau v\u00b5 t\u00e6 ch\u00f8c kh\u00b8c nhau v\u00b5 c\u00b8c thu\u00e9c t\u00ddnh kh\u00b8c nhau t\u00acng \u00f8ng c\u00f1a ch\u00f3ng.\ue000 kh\u00abng \u00ae\u00e5ng nh\u00cat v\u00cbt ch\u00cat v\u00edi v\u00cbt th\u00d3 c\u00f4 th\u00d3...

++ l\u00b5 s\u00b6n ph\u00c8m c\u00f1a t duy con ng\u00eai,

++ kh\u00b8i qu\u00b8t tri\u00d5t h\u00e4c:kh\u00b8i qu\u00b8t \u00ae\u00c6c t\u00ddnh c\u00ac b\u00b6n c\u00f1a th\u00d5 gi\u00edi hi\u00d6n th\u00f9c kh\u00b8ch quan, ch\u00d8 ra d\u00cau hi\u00d6u, \u00ae\u00c6c trng c\u00ac b\u00b6n c\u00f1a m\u00e9t l\u00edp v\u00cbt ch\u00cat r\u00e9ng l\u00edn c\u00f1a hi\u00d6n th\u00f9c. C\u00f4 th\u00d3, v\u00cbt ch\u00cat:

+++ t\u00e5n t\u00b9i kh\u00b8ch quan, kh\u00abng ph\u00f4 thu\u00e9c v\u00b5o c\u00b6m gi\u00b8c (/\u00ae\u00e9c l\u00cbp v\u00edi c\u00b6m gi\u00b8c/\u00fd
th\u00f8c)
+++ \u00ae\u00eec ph\u00b6n \u00b8nh b\u00ebi c\u00b6m gi\u00b8c (\u00aeem l\u00b9i cho ch\u00f3ng ta trong c\u00b6m gi\u00b8c/\u00fd th\u00f8c)
\ue0002 d\u00cau hi\u00d6u c\u00ac b\u00b6n c\u00f1a v\u00cbt ch\u00cat, \u00ae\u00b7 \u00ae\u00eec M\u00b8c, \u00a1ng-ghen \u00aea ra.
+ \u00ae\u00denh ngh\u00dca n\u00b5y gi\u00b6i quy\u00d5t \u00ae\u00eec c\u00b6 hai m\u00c6t v\u00can \u00ae\u00d2 c\u00ac b\u00b6n c\u00f1a tri\u00d5t h\u00e4c
theo l\u00cbp tr\u00eang duy v\u00cbt bi\u00d6n ch\u00f8ng
++ th\u00f9c t\u00b9i kh\u00b8ch quan, v\u00cbt ch\u00cat c\u00e3 tr\u00edc, \u00fd th\u00f8c c\u00e3 sau; v\u00cbt ch\u00cat l\u00b5 ngu\u00e5n g\u00e8c kh\u00b8ch
quan c\u00f1a c\u00b6m gi\u00b8c, \u00fd th\u00f8c;
++ c\u00b6m gi\u00b8c, \u00fd th\u00f8c c\u00f1a con ng\u00eai l\u00b5 s\u00f9 ph\u00b6n \u00b8nh th\u00f9c t\u00b9i kh\u00b8ch quan. Con ng\u00eai c\u00e3
kh\u00b6 n\u00a8ng nh\u00cbn th\u00f8c \u00ae\u00eec th\u00d5 gi\u00edi v\u00cbt ch\u00cat nh\u00ea c\u00b6m gi\u00b8c (ch\u00d0p l\u00b9i, ph\u00b6n \u00b8nh).
+ L\u00aa-nin ch\u00d8 ra ph\u00acng ph\u00b8p \u00ae\u00denh ngh\u00dca ph\u00b9m tr\u00ef v\u00cbt ch\u00cat
++ ph\u00b9m tr\u00ef v\u00cat ch\u00cat l\u00b5 ph\u00b9m tr\u00ef r\u00e9ng nh\u00cat trong h\u00d6 th\u00e3ng c\u00b8c ph\u00b9m tr\u00ef, kh\u00abng th\u00d3
\u00ae\u00denh ngh\u00dca b\u00bbng ph\u00acng ph\u00b8p \u00ae\u00denh ngh\u00dca th\u00abng th\u00eang (quy kh\u00b8i ni\u00d6m c\u00c7n \u00ae\u00denh
ngh\u00dca v\u00b5o m\u00e9t kh\u00b8i ni\u00d6m r\u00e9ng h\u00acn v\u00b5 ch\u00d8 ra nh\u00f7ng \u00ae\u00c6c \u00aei\u00d3m kh\u00b8c bi\u00d6t. VD
h\u00d7nh ch\u00f7 nh\u00cbt l\u00b5 h\u00d7nh b\u00d7nh h\u00b5nh c\u00e3 hai \u00ae\u00eang ch\u00d0o b\u00bbng nhau)
++\u00ae\u00e8i l\u00cbp v\u00cbt ch\u00cat v\u00edi \u00fd th\u00f8c v\u00b5 ch\u00d8 ra thu\u00e9c t\u00ddnh c\u00a8n b\u00b6n ph\u00e6 bi\u00d5n
ph\u00a9n bi\u00d6t v\u00cbt ch\u00cat v\u00edi \u00fd th\u00f8c
* \u00fd ngh\u00dca c\u00f1a \u00ae\u00denh ngh\u00dca c\u00f1a L\u00aa-nin v\u00d2 v\u00cbt ch\u00cat
- c\u00e3 \u00fd ngh\u00dca th\u00d5 gi\u00edi quan v\u00b5 ph\u00acng ph\u00b8p lu\u00cbn s\u00a9u s\u00bec \u00ae\u00e8i v\u00edi nh\u00cbn th\u00f8c khoa h\u00e4c v\u00b5
th\u00f9c ti\u00d4n
- kh\u00bec ph\u00f4c \u00ae\u00eec t\u00ddnh ch\u00cat si\u00aau h\u00d7nh, tr\u00f9c quan trong c\u00b8c quan ni\u00d6m v\u00d2 v\u00cbt ch\u00cat c\u00f1a ch\u00f1
ngh\u00dca duy v\u00cbt tr\u00edc M\u00b8c

- ch\u00e8ng l\u00b9i c\u00b8c quan \u00aei\u00d3m duy t\u00a9m (c\u00b6 kh\u00b8ch quan v\u00b5 ch\u00f1 quan) v\u00d2 v\u00cbt ch\u00cat: kh\u00abng ph\u00b6i "v\u00cbt ch\u00cat ti\u00aau tan m\u00cat" m\u00b5 ch\u00d8 c\u00e3 gi\u00edi h\u00b9n hi\u00d3u bi\u00d5t c\u00f1a con ng\u00eai v\u00d2 v\u00cbt ch\u00cat l\u00b5 ti\u00aau tan. Ngo\u00b5i ra, t\u00b9o c\u00ac s\u00eb l\u00fd lu\u00cbn \u00ae\u00d3 kh\u00bec ph\u00f4c quan \u00aei\u00d3m duy t\u00a9m v\u00d2 \u00ae\u00eai s\u00e8ng x\u00b7 h\u00e9i c\u00f1a ch\u00f1 ngh\u00dca duy v\u00cbt tr\u00edc M\u00b8c.

- c\u00e3 vai tr\u00df \u00ae\u00denh h\u00edng cho s\u00f9 ph\u00b8t tri\u00d3n c\u00f1a nh\u00cbn th\u00f8c khoa h\u00e4c, gi\u00f3p cho nh\u00cbn th\u00f8c
khoa h\u00e4c tr\u00b8nh \u00ae\u00eec c\u00b8c cu\u00e9c kh\u00f1ng ho\u00b6ng t\u00acng t\u00f9 nh \u00eb cu\u00e8i th\u00d5 k\u00fb 19, \u00ae\u00c7u 20 khi
kh\u00bcng \u00ae\u00denh \u00ae\u00e8i t\u00eeng c\u00f1a nh\u00cbn th\u00f8c l\u00b5 v\u00ab t\u00cbn.
1 V.I.L\u00aa-nin: To\u00b5n t\u00cbp: t.18, Nxb Ti\u00d5n b\u00e9, M.1980
2
2. Quan \u00aei\u00d3m c\u00f1a tri\u00d5t h\u00e4c duy v\u00cbt bi\u00d6n ch\u00f8ng v\u00d2 v\u00cbt ch\u00cat.
- Ph\u00b9m tr\u00ef v\u00cbt ch\u00cat (to\u00b5n b\u00e9 ph\u00c7n 1)
- T\u00e5n t\u00b9i v\u00cbt ch\u00cat
+ Kh\u00abng gian v\u00b5 th\u00eai gian l\u00b5 nh\u1eefng h\u00ecnh th\u1ee9c t\u1ed3n t\u1ea1i c\u1ee7a v\u1eadt ch\u1ea5t, l\u00e0 nh\u1eefng thu\u1ed9c t\u00ednh
chung v\u1ed1n c\u00f3 c\u1ee7a c\u00e1c d\u1ea1ng v\u1eadt ch\u1ea5t c\u1ee5 th\u1ec3.

Kh\u00f4ng gian v\u00e0 th\u1eddi gian l\u00e0 nh\u1eefng h\u00ecnh th\u1ee9c c\u01a1 b\u1ea3n c\u1ee7a v\u1eadt ch\u1ea5t \u0111ang v\u1eadn \u0111\u1ed9ng. Kh\u00f4ng c\u00f3 kh\u00f4ng gian v\u00e0 th\u1eddi gian b\u00ean ngo\u00e0i v\u1eadt ch\u1ea5t v\u1eadn \u0111\u1ed9ng. L\u00ea-nin vi\u1ebft: "Th\u1ebf gi\u1edbi kh\u00f4ng c\u00f3 g\u00ec ngo\u00e0i v\u1eadt ch\u1ea5t \u0111ang v\u1eadn \u0111\u1ed9ng v\u00e0 v\u1eadt ch\u1ea5t \u0111ang v\u1eadn \u0111\u1ed9ng kh\u00f4ng th\u1ec3 \u1edf \u0111\u00e2u ngo\u00e0i kh\u00f4ng gian v\u00e0 th\u1eddi gian"2.

Tuy \u0111\u1ec1u l\u00e0 h\u00ecnh th\u1ee9c t\u1ed3n t\u1ea1i c\u1ee7a v\u1eadt ch\u1ea5t, nh\u01b0ng gi\u1eefa kh\u00f4ng gian v\u00e0 th\u1eddi gian c\u00f3 s\u1ef1 kh\u00e1c nhau. S\u1ef1 kh\u00e1c bi\u1ec7t gi\u1eefa kh\u00f4ng gian v\u00e0 th\u1eddi gian l\u00e0 \u1edf ch\u1ed7: kh\u00f4ng gian c\u00f3 ba chi\u1ec1u: chi\u1ec1u d\u00e0i, chi\u1ec1u r\u1ed9ng v\u00e0 chi\u1ec1u cao. C\u00f2n th\u1eddi gian ch\u1ec9 c\u00f3 m\u1ed9t chi\u1ec1u tr\u00f4i \u0111i m\u1ed9t c\u00e1ch kh\u00f4ng thu\u1eabn ngh\u1ecbch t\u1eeb qu\u00e1 kh\u1ee9 \u0111\u1ebfn t\u01b0\u01a1ng lai.

+ V\u1eadn \u0111\u1ed9ng l\u00e0 ph\u01b0\u01a1ng th\u1ee9c t\u1ed3n t\u1ea1i c\u1ee7a v\u1eadt ch\u1ea5t. V\u1eadn \u0111\u1ed9ng kh\u00f4ng ph\u1ea3i ch\u1ec9 l\u00e0 s\u1ef1 di chuy\u1ec3n v\u1ecb tr\u00ed trong
kh\u00f4ng gian m\u00e0 theo ngh\u0129a chung nh\u1ea5t, l\u00e0 s\u1ef1 bi\u1ec3n \u0111\u1ed5i n\u00f3i chung.
V\u1eadt ch\u1ea5t t\u1ed3n t\u1ea1i b\u1eb1ng c\u00e1ch v\u1eadn \u0111\u1ed9ng v\u00e0 th\u00f4ng qua v\u1eadn \u0111\u1ed9ng m\u00e0 bi\u1ec3u hi\u1ec7n s\u1ef1 t\u1ed3n t\u1ea1i c\u1ee7a m\u00ecnh, kh\u00f4ng th\u1ec3
c\u00f3 v\u1eadt ch\u1ea5t kh\u00f4ng c\u00f3 v\u1eadn \u0111\u1ed9ng v\u00e0 ng\u01b0\u1ee3c l\u1ea1i.
- \u00dd ngh\u0129a
Ph\u1ea3i xu\u1ea5t ph\u00e1t t\u1eeb hi\u1ec7n th\u1ef1c kh\u00e1ch quan \u0111\u1ec3 ph\u1ea3n \u00e1nh hi\u1ec7n th\u1ef1c kh\u00e1ch quan, kh\u00f4ng th\u1ec3 ch\u1ee7 quan, duy \u00fd ch\u00ed
\ue000 m\u1ecdi \u0111\u01b0\u1eddng l\u1ed1i, ch\u1ee7 tr\u01b0\u01a1ng, \u0111\u01b0\u1eddng l\u1ed1i, ch\u00ednh s\u00e1ch c\u1ee7a \u0110\u1ea3ng ph\u1ea3i xu\u1ea5t ph\u00e1t t\u1eeb hi\u1ec7n th\u1ef1c kh\u00e1ch quan.
3. V\u00cbt ch\u00cat v\u00b5 v\u00cbn \u00ae\u00e9ng
* Kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m v\u1eadn \u0111\u1ed9ng:
V\u1eadn \u0111\u1ed9ng kh\u00f4ng ph\u1ea3i ch\u1ec9 l\u00e0 s\u1ef1 di chuy\u1ec3n v\u1ecb tr\u00ed trong kh\u00f4ng gian m\u00e0 theo ngh\u0129a chung nh\u1ea5t, l\u00e0 s\u1ef1 bi\u1ec3n \u0111\u1ed5i
n\u00f3i chung.

- \u0102NG-GHEN vi\u1ebft: "V\u1eadn \u0111\u1ed9ng, hi\u1ec3u theo ngh\u0129a chung nh\u1ea5t, t\u1ee9c \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c hi\u1ec3u l\u00e0 m\u1ed9t ph\u01b0\u01a1ng th\u1ee9c t\u1ed3n t\u1ea1i c\u1ee7a v\u1eb7t ch\u1ea5t, l\u00e0 m\u1ed9t thu\u1ed9c t\u00ednh c\u1ed1 h\u1eefu c\u1ee7a v\u1eadt ch\u1ea5t, th\u00ec bao g\u1ed3m t\u1ea5t c\u1ea3 m\u1ecdi s\u1ef1 thay \u0111\u1ed5i v\u00e0 m\u1ecdi qu\u00e1 tr\u00ecnh di\u1ec5n ra trong v\u0169 tr\u1ee5, k\u1ec3 t\u1eeb s\u1ef1 thay \u0111\u1ed5i v\u1ecb tr\u00ed \u0111\u01a1n gi\u1ea3n cho \u0111\u1ebfn t\u01b0 duy"3.

- V\u1eadn \u0111\u1ed9ng l\u00e0 ph\u01b0\u01a1ng th\u1ee9c t\u1ed3n t\u1ea1i c\u1ee7a v\u1eadt ch\u1ea5t, \u0111i\u1ec1u \u0111\u00f3 c\u00f3 ngh\u0129a v\u1eadt ch\u1ea5t t\u1ed3n t\u1ea1i b\u1eb1ng c\u00e1ch v\u1eadn \u0111\u1ed9ng v\u00e0
th\u00f4ng qua v\u1eadn \u0111\u1ed9ng m\u00e0 bi\u1ec3u hi\u1ec7n s\u1ef1 t\u1ed3n t\u1ea1i c\u1ee7a m\u00ecnh, kh\u00f4ng th\u1ec3 c\u00f3 v\u1eadt ch\u1ea5t kh\u00f4ng c\u00f3 v\u1eadn \u0111\u1ed9ng v\u00e0 ng\u01b0\u1ee3c l\u1ea1i.
- Khi \u0111\u1ecbnh ngh\u0129a v\u1eadn \u0111\u1ed9ng l\u00e0 s\u1ef1 bi\u1ebfn \u0111\u1ed5i n\u00f3i chung, th\u00ec lu\u1eadn \u0111i\u1ec3m \u0111\u00f3 \u0111\u00e3 bao h\u00e0m lu\u1eadn \u0111i\u1ec3m th\u1ee9 hai: v\u1eadn \u0111\u1ed9ng
l\u00e0 ph\u01b0\u01a1ng th\u1ee9c t\u1ed3n t\u1ea1i c\u1ee7a v\u1eadt ch\u1ea5t, l\u00e0 thu\u1ed9c t\u00ednh kh\u00f4ng t\u00e1ch r\u1eddi c\u1ee7a v\u1eadt ch\u1ea5t.
* Thu\u1ed9c t\u00ednh (/t\u00ednh ch\u1ea5t) c\u1ee7a v\u1eadn \u0111\u1ed9ng

- T\u00ednh kh\u00e1ch quan:
+ g\u1eafn li\u1ec1n v\u1edbi v\u1eadt ch\u1ea5t
+ do nguy\u00ean nh\u00e2n b\u00ean trong (kh\u00f4ng ph\u1ea3i do Th\u01b0\u1ee3ng \u0111\u1ebf)

Theo quan \u0111i\u1ec3m duy v\u1eadt bi\u1ec7n ch\u1ee9ng, v\u1eadn \u0111\u1ed9ng c\u1ee7a v\u1eadt ch\u1ea5t l\u00e0 s\u1ef1 t\u1ef1 th\u00e2n v\u1eadn \u0111\u1ed9ng, b\u1edfi v\u00ec t\u1ea5t c\u1ea3 c\u00e1c d\u1ea1ng v\u1eadt ch\u1ea5t bao gi\u1edd c\u0169ng l\u00e0 m\u1ed9t k\u1ebft c\u1ea5u bao g\u1ed3m c\u00e1c y\u1ebfu t\u1ed1, c\u00e1c m\u1eb7t, c\u00e1c qu\u00e1 tr\u00ecnh trong s\u1ef1 li\u00ean h\u1ec7 t\u00e1c \u0111\u1ed9ng qua l\u1ea1i. Ch\u00ednh s\u1ef1 t\u00e1c \u0111\u1ed9ng qua l\u1ea1i gi\u1eefa c\u00e1c y\u1ebfu t\u1ed1, c\u00e1c m\u1eb7t, c\u00e1c qu\u00e1 tr\u00ecnh \u0111\u00e3 d\u1eabn \u0111\u1ebfn s\u1ef1 bi\u1ebfn \u0111\u1ed5i n\u00f3i chung.

- T\u00ednh m\u00e2u thu\u1eabn
+ m\u1ed9t v\u1eadt v\u1eeba l\u00e0 n\u00f3, v\u1eeba kh\u00f4ng ph\u1ea3i l\u00e0 n\u00f3
+ Th\u00f4ng qua v\u1eadn \u0111\u1ed9ng c\u00e1c d\u1ea1ng v\u1eadt ch\u1ea5t m\u1edbi b\u1ed9c l\u1ed9 ra l\u00e0 c\u00e1i g\u00ec. Cho n\u00ean c\u00e1c d\u1ea1ng v\u1eadt ch\u1ea5t \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c nh\u1eadn
th\u1ee9c th\u00f4ng qua s\u1ef1 v\u1eadn \u0111\u1ed9ng c\u1ee7a ch\u00fang.
2 VLL\u00aa-nin: To\u00e0n t\u00cbp, t.18, Nxb Ti\u00d5n b\u00e9, M.1980' tr' 209-210.
3 Pb.\u0102NG-GHEN: Bi\u1ec7n ch\u1ee9ng c\u1ee7a t\u1ef1 nhi\u00ean. Nxb S\u1ef1 th\u1eadt, H\u00e0 N\u1ed9i, 1974, tr.92.'
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