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IR

IR

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Published by: api-3723327 on Oct 18, 2008
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03/18/2014

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The Health Sciences Center

The portion of the infrared region most useful for analysis of organic compounds is not immediately adjacent to the visible spectrum, but is that having a wavelength range from 4000 to 600 cm-1, with a corresponding frequency range.

Infrared Spectroscopy
Region
Wavelength(\u03bb)
Range,\u03bcm
Wavenumber(\u03bdbar)
Range, cm-1
Frequency(\u03bd)
Range, Hz
near
0.78 - 2.5
12800 - 4000
3.8 x 1014 - 1.2 x 1014
middle
2.5 - 50
4000 - 200
1.2 x 1014 - 6.0 x 1012
far
50 - 1000
200 - 10
6.0 x 1012 - 3.0 x 1011
most used
2.5 - 15
4000 - 670
1.2 x 1014 - 2.0 x 1013
PotentialEn
ergy,E
Displacement, y
0
-A
+A
-A
+A
0
Mechanical model of Stretching Vibration
Consider the vibration of a mass attached to a spring.
If the mass is displaced a distance y by application of a force, the restoring
force is proportional to the displacement (Hooke\u2019s Law)
y
where k is the force constant
The potential energy of a vibrating spring
( a harmonic oscillator) is
parabolic
The potential energy of a vibrating spring
( a harmonic oscillator) is given by
For a system consisting of two masses m1 and m2 connected by a spring
( which approximates two atoms connected by a bond),
- the mass m above is replaced by reduced mass, \u00b5.
F = -ky
E = (1/2) ky2
\u20ac
\u03bdm=1
2\u03c0
k
m
The vibrational frequency for such a system is given by
Quantum Mechanical Treatment of Vibrations
Solutions of the equations for PE of harmonic oscillator is given by
where h is Planck\u2019s constant and v is vibrational quantum number (v = 0, 1, 2 ...)
Thus QM vibrators can take only certain discrete values.
Note that the last two terms (less h) is equal to the natural frequency,\u03bdm.
Thus,
\u20ac
\u00b5=
m1m2
m1+ m2
\u20ac
\u03bdm=1
2\u03c0
k
\u00b5
=1
2\u03c0
k m1+ m2
(
)
m1m2
\u20ac
E= v+12
\ue000\ue001\ue002
\ue003\ue004\ue005h
2\u03c0
k
\u00b5
E= v+12
\ue000\ue001\ue002
\ue003\ue004\ue005h\u03bdm

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