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10-16696 #372

10-16696 #372

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Published by Equality Case Files
Doc # 372 - Amicus Brief of Gage Raley in support of Proponents.
Doc # 372 - Amicus Brief of Gage Raley in support of Proponents.

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Published by: Equality Case Files on Nov 01, 2011
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11/01/2011

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No. 10-16696IN THE UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALSFOR THE NINTH CIRCUITKRISTIN PERRY
,
et al 
.,
 Plaintiffs-Appellees
,v.
ARNOLD SCHWARZENEGGER 
,
et al 
.,
 Defendants
,and
DENNIS HOLLINGSWORTH
,
et al 
.,
 Defendant-Intervenors-Appellants.
O
 N
A
PPEAL FROM THE
U
 NITED
S
TATES
D
ISTRICT
C
OURT
 
FOR THE
 N
ORTHERN
D
ISTRICT OF
C
ALIFORNIA
,
 
C
ASE
 N
O
.
 
3:09-
CV
-02292
 
(H
ONORABLE
V
AUGHN
R.
 
W
ALKER 
)
 BRIEF OF
 AMICUS 
 
CURIAE 
, GAGE RALEY,IN SUPPORT OF DEFENDANT-INTERVENORS-APPELLANTSURGING REVERSAL OF THE DISTRICT COURT
Gage Raley4-5-5-E505 Kashiihama, Higashi-kuFukuoka-shi 813-0016, JapanPhone: (202) 695-2415Email:gageraley@gmail.com 
 In Pro Se as
 
 Amicus Curiae
Case: 10-16696 11/01/2011 ID: 7950290 DktEntry: 372-1 Page: 1 of 57
(1 of 67)
 
i
TABLE OF CONTENTSTABLE OF AUTHORITIES...................................................................................iiiINTEREST OF
 AMICUS 
 
CURIAE 
...........................................................................1SUMMARY OF THE ARGUMENT........................................................................1ARGUMENT............................................................................................................3I. THE INSEPARABLE HISTORIC RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MARRIAGEAND PATERNITY ESTABLISHMENT SHOWS THAT SAME-SEXUNIONS DO NOT “ENCOMPASS THE HISTORICAL PURPOSE ANDFORM OF MARRIAGE,” AND THUS SAME-SEX UNIONS DO NOT FALLUNDER THE FUNDAMENTAL RIGHT TO MARRY.....................................3A. The U.S. Supreme Court favors certain types of historical authorities whenevaluating fundamental rights claims, which the court below failed toconsult.............................................................................................................3B. Historical sources show that paternity establishment has long beenconsidered a fundamental purpose of marriage in Western law and thought.7
i. Modern evolutionary theory
.......................................................................8
ii. Ancient Greece
.........................................................................................13
iii. Ancient Rome
...........................................................................................15
iv. Medieval Ecclesiastic Scholarship
...........................................................17
v. English Law
..............................................................................................20
vi. American Law
..........................................................................................34C. “Our Nation’s history, legal traditions, and practices” show that same-sexunions do
not 
“encompass the historical purpose and form of marriage”....39II. BECAUSE THE MARITAL PRESUMPTION OF PATERNITY ISINCOMPATIBLE WITH SAME-SEX UNIONS, THE STATE OFCALIFORNIA HAS A RATIONAL BASIS FOR LIMITING MARRIAGE TOA MAN AND A WOMAN................................................................................41
Case: 10-16696 11/01/2011 ID: 7950290 DktEntry: 372-1 Page: 2 of 57
(2 of 67)
 
ii
CONCLUSION.......................................................................................................44
Case: 10-16696 11/01/2011 ID: 7950290 DktEntry: 372-1 Page: 3 of 57
(3 of 67)

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