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Course Material for Module 4

Course Material for Module 4

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Published by Noble Varghese

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Published by: Noble Varghese on Nov 02, 2011
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T 703 Modern Communication Systems
Module 4
Mobile CommunicationIntroduction
Cellular Telephone’s key concepts were evolved from Bell Lab in 1947.It was found that by sub dividing a large geographical market area called coveragezone into smaller sections called cells , the concept frequency re use could beemployed to increase the mobile telephone channel. Cellular systems allow largenumber of servers to share a common usage channels available in a region.In addition to IC technologies , micro controllers and micro processor chips enabledcomplex radio and logic circuits to be used in electronic switching machines to store programs that provide faster and efficient call processing.Each area is divided into hexagonal shaped cells that fit together to form honey comb patterns. Hexagon shape provides most effective transmission by approximating acellular pattern which eliminates inherently present dark regions between adjacentcircles.A cell is defined by its physical size and by and by the size of its population andtraffic patterns. Each geographical area is allocated a fixed number of cellular voicechannels. Physical size of cell varies depending on the user density.There are macro cells(1-25miles,1-20watts) and micro cells (1- 100’s of feet , 0.1watt) . Micro cells are used in cities and due to their low effective working radius ,exhibit milder propagation impairments such as reflections and signal delays. Macrocells may overlay micro cells.Frequency reuseFrequency reuse is a process in which same set of frequencies can be allocated tomore than one cell , provided cells are at a certain distance apart.Each cell is allocated a group of channel frequencies which are different fromneighboring cells and the base station antennas are chosen to achieve a desiredcoverage pattern within the cell.Frequency reuse can be mathematically illustrated by considering with a number of Frequency division channels available . Each geographic area is allocated a groups of channels which is divided into n cells in a unique and disjoint channel groupingwhen each cell has same number of channels.
 Prepared By Ms.Sreenu.G, Department Of Computer Science, RASET 
T 703 Modern Communication Systems
F=GNWhere N- number of cells in a cluster G- number of channels in a cellF- number of FD channels available in a cluster.G<F .Cells that collectively use a complete set of available channel frequencies are calledclusters. When a cluster is duplicated ‘m’ times within a system , total number of fullduplex channels areC= mGNC- Channel capacitym- number of clusters N- cluster size(3,7,12)Frequency reuse factor is inversely proportional to number of cells in a cluster.(1/ N).So each cell within a cluster is assigned 1/N ‘th of total available channels in thecluster.
The major kinds of interference produced within cellular telephone system arenamely co-channel interference and , adjacent channel interference.Co- channel interferenceDue to frequency reuse of several cells within a given coverage area use the samefrequencies. Two cells using same frequency are called co-channel cells and theinterference between them is termed co-channel interference. Quite unlike thermalnoise , co – channel interference cannot be reduced by increasing transmit power since increasing the cell’s transmission interfering with the transmission of another cell. To reduce this , co – channels must be separated by a certain minimum distance.Interference between the cells is proportional to the ratio of distances to the cell’sradius. Since cell’s radius is proportional to the transmit power , more radio channelscan be added to a system simply by decreasing transmission power per cell by makingthe cell smaller and filling the vacated coverage area with new cells. If cells are of same size , co-channel interference is dependent on radius of cells( R ) , and distanceto nearest co- channel cell ( D) . Increasing D/R ratio ( co-channel reuse ratio)increases spatial separation between co – channel cells relative to coverage distance.For hexagonal geometry
 Prepared By Ms.Sreenu.G, Department Of Computer Science, RASET 
T 703 Modern Communication Systems
Q = D/ = √3NWhereQ- Co channel reuse ratioD- distance to center of nearest co channel cell(Km)R- cell radius (Km) N-Cluster size (number of cells)Smaller the value of Q, larger the channel capacity since cluster size is also small.Hence large values of Q improve co-channel interference and thus over alltransmission quality. The trade off opts an optimal way.Adjacent channel interferenceAdjacent channel interference occurs when transmission from adjacent channelsinterfere with each other. The results from imperfect filters in receivers that allownear by frequencies to enter the receiver. This is usually prevalent when adjacentchannels are transmitting very close to mobile unit receiver simultaneously trying toreceive transmission on adjacent frequency. This is called near- far –effect and ismost prevalent when a mobile unit receiving a week signal from the base station.This can be minimized by using precise filtering in receiver and making carefulchannel assignments. It can also be reduced by maintaining a reasonable frequencyseparation between channels in a given cell. For this re use factor should be largeenough to maintain adequate adjacent channel interference level.Different ways of cell splitting segmentization and dualisation are discussed in thelecture.Purpose of cell splitting is to increase the channel capacity and improve availablereliability of cell telephone network. Cell splitting provides for orderly growth of cellular system. Resizing or redistribution of cell area is called cell splitting . Cellsplitting occurs when traffic levels in a cell is reach a point where channel availabilityis jeoprdised.
 Prepared By Ms.Sreenu.G, Department Of Computer Science, RASET 

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