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Recrd Strge Organization

Recrd Strge Organization

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Notes of Database Management System
Mrs Mousmi Ajay Chaurasia, LECTURER, Dept. of INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
Page 1
UNIT- 1
Record Storage & Primary File Organization
\u2022 Up until now we have examined database design from a high-level conceptual view, passing over actual
implementation and underlying hardware.
\u2013 Appropriate focus for database users
\u2013 But hardware does have an influence on implementation, and implementation does have an
influence on what conceptual designs will be more efficient and useful
\u2022 Now we get examine physical storage media to give a background for later focus on implementation of
the data models and languages .
Classification of Physical Storage Media

Media are classified according to three characteristics:
\u2013 speed of access
\u2013 cost per unit of data

\u2013 reliability
\u2022 data loss on power failure or system crash

\u2022 physical failure of the storage device
\u2013 Can differentiate storage into:
\u2013volatile storage: loses contents when power is switched off

\u2013non-volatile storage:
\ue000 Contents persist even when power is switched off.
\ue000 Includes secondary and tertiary storage, as well as batterbacked up main-memory.
Physical Storage Media Overview
\u2022 Typical media available are:
1) Cache
2) Main memory
3) Flash memory
4) Magnetic disks
5) Optical storage (CD or DVD)
6) Tape storage
Notes of Database Management System
Mrs Mousmi Ajay Chaurasia, LECTURER, Dept. of INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
Page 2
From the above storage hirerachy figure :
\u2022Primary storage: fastest media but volatile
\u2013 cache
\u2013 main memory
\u2022secondary storage: next level in hierarchy; moderately fast access time, non-volatile
\u2013 also called on-line storage
\u2013 flash memory, magnetic disks
\u2022tertiary storage: lowest level in hierarchy; slower access time, non-volatile
\u2013 also called off-line storage
\u2013 optical storage, magnetic tapes
\ue001 CACHE :Most costly and fastest form of storage. Usually very small, volatile and managed
by the operating system.
\ue001 MAIN MEMORY(MM) : The storage area for data available to be operated on.

\ue000 General-purpose machine instructions operate on main memory.
\ue000 Contents of main memory are usually lost in a power failure or ``crash''.
\ue000 Usually too small (even with megabytes) and too expensive to store the entire database.

\ue001 FLASH MEMORY :EEPROM (electrically erasable programmable read-only memory).
\ue000 Data in flash memory survive from power failure.
\ue000 Reading data from flash memory takes about 10 nano-secs (roughly as fast as from main memory),
and writing data into flash memory is more complicated i.e (slow): write-once takes
about 4-10 microsecs.
Notes of Database Management System
Mrs Mousmi Ajay Chaurasia, LECTURER, Dept. of INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
Page 3
\ue000 To overwrite what has been written, one has to first erase the entire bank of the memory. It may
support only a limited number of erase cycles (
to
).
\ue000 It has found its popularity as a replacement for disks for storing small volumes of data
(5-10 megabytes).
\ue000 Cost per unit of storage roughly similar to main memory
\ue000 Widely used in embedded devices such as digital cameras
\ue001 MAGNETIC DISK : primary medium for long term storage
\ue000 Typically the entire database is stored on disk.
\ue000
Data is stored on spinning disk, and read/written magnetically
\ue000 Data must be moved from disk to main memory in order for the data to be operated on.
\ue000 After operations are performed, data must be copied back to disk if any changes were made.(much
slower access than main memory.
\ue000 Disk storage is called direct access storage as it is possible to read data on the disk in any order
(unlike sequential access).
\ue000 Disk storage usually survives power failures and system crashes (very rarely data destroy).
\ue000 Capacities range up to roughly 400 GB currently.
\u2013 Much larger capacity and cost/byte than main memory/flash memory
\u2013 Growing constantly and rapidly with technology improvements (factor of 2 to 3 every 2
years)
\ue001 OPTICAL STORAGE :CD-ROM (compact-disk read-only memory), WORM (write-once read-many)
disk (for archival storage of data), and Juke box (containing a few drives and numerous disks loaded on

demand). Non-volatile, data is read optically from a spinning disk using a laser.
\u2022 CD-ROM (640 MB) and DVD (4.7 to 17 GB) most popular forms
\u2022 Write-one, read-many (WORM) optical disks used for archival storage (CD-R, DVD-R, DVD+R)
\u2022 Multiple write versions also available (CD-RW, DVD-RW, DVD+RW)
\u2022 Reads and writes are slower than with magnetic disk

\u2022Juke-box : systems, with large numbers of removable disks, a few drives, and a mechanism for
automatic loading/unloading of disks available for storing large volumes of data.
\ue001 TAPE STORAGE :used primarily for backup and archival data.

\u2022 Cheaper, but much slower access, since tape must be read sequentially from the beginning.
\u2022 Used as protection from disk failures!
\u2022

sequential-access \u2013 much slower than disk, very high capacity (40 to 300 GB tapes available), tape
can be removed from drive\u21d2 storage costs much cheaper than disk, but drives are expensive.

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