(229-321), the humble, self-effaced, scrupulous, peerlessF a q\u012b h, absoluteMu jta h id, and unrivalled Im\u0101m and Master of theMa d h h a b in h. ad\u012bth and its sciences, \u201cmatched by none of those who followed\u201d (Ibn Y\u016bnus, al-S. afad\u012b, al-Suy\u016bt.\u012b), \u201cunanimously agreed upon in his trustworthiness\u201d (al-\u2018Ayn\u012b, al-Sam\u2018\u0101n\u012b, al-Dhahab\u012b, al-Suy\u016bt.\u012b), \u201cthe Master in all the Schools ofF i qh\u201d (Ibn \u2018Abd al-Barr), \u201cone of the established trustworthy giants among the h. ad\u012bth Masters\u201d (Ibn Kath\u012br), who shared the sameS h u y\u016b kh in h. ad\u012bth as Muslim, al-Nas\u0101\u2019\u012b, Ab\u016b D\u0101w\u016bd, and Ibn M\u0101jah, and \u201cwhoseS h a rh. Ma \u2018\u0101 n\u012b a l-\u0100 th\u0101 r definitely surpasses theS u n a n in excellence\u201d (al-Kawthar\u012b)!2
A student of his maternal uncle al-Muzan\u012b, Ab\u016b Ja\u2018far first followed the Sh\u0101fi\u2018\u012b School until al- Muzan\u012b\u2019s death in 264, after which he focused on three Cairene h. ad\u012bth Masters of superlative Religion andFiqh, all of them H. anaf\u012bs: the Q\u0101d.\u012b of Sh\u0101m, K\u016bfa, and Karkh (Baghd\u0101d) Ab\u016b Kh\u0101zim \u2018Abd al- H. am\u012bd ibn \u2018Abd al-\u2018Az\u012bz al-Sak\u016bn\u012b al-Bas.r\u012b (d. 292), the saintly Q\u0101d.\u012b of all Egypt Ab\u016b Bakrah Bakk\u0101r ibn Qutayba al-Bas.r\u012b (d. 270), and his successor the Q\u0101d.\u012b of all Egypt Ab\u016b Ja\u2018far Ah. mad ibn Ab\u012b \u2018Imr\u0101n M\u016bs\u0101 ibn \u2018\u012as\u0101 al-Baghd\u0101d\u012b (d. 280) whom al-T. ah.\u0101w\u012b frequented for twenty years and who was probably the decisive reason behind his switching to the H. anaf\u012b School. After this, al-T. ah.\u0101w\u012b said, he dreamt of al-Muzan\u012b complaining to him: \u201cAb\u016b Ja\u2018far robbed me of you, Ab\u016b Ja\u2018far!\u201d However, the claim that the reason for his adoption of the H. anaf\u012b School was that \u201che had seen his uncle and teacher turning to the works of H. anaf\u012b Scholars to resolve many thorny issues offiq h etc.\u201d is most likely untrue since al- Muzan\u012b\u2019sMu kh ta s. a r and his other works are replete with refutations of the H. anaf\u012b School.
and h. ad\u012bth auditions more than Ibn Kath\u012br. The latter is closer to the definition ofh. ifz. by the standards of theF u q a h\u0101 \u2019, due to his great familiarity wih the juristic and Qur\u2019anic commentary texts, than Ibn R\u0101fi\u2018. The two of them would make up an accomplishedH.\u0101 fiz. but few are those that attained such a level after the early period, such as Ibn Khuzayma, al-T.ah.\u0101w\u012b, Ibn H. ibb\u0101n, al-Bayhaq\u012b, and, in the latter period, our Shaykh, al-\u2018Ir\u0101q\u012b.\u201d3
Ah. k\u0101m al-Qur\u2019\u0101n, his Tafs\u012br, partly extant and now published in Turkey.
Akhb\u0101r Ab\u012b H. an\u012bfa, also known as his Man\u0101qib.
Bay\u0101n I\u2018tiq\u0101d Ahl al-Sunna wal-Jam\u0101\u2018a \u2018al\u0101 Madhhab Fuqah\u0101\u2019 al-Milla Ab\u012b H. an\u012bfa wa-Ab\u012b Y\u016bsuf al-
Congregation According to the Teachings of the Jurists of the Community, Ab\u016b H. an\u012bfa and his Compan- ions\u201d), known as the \u2018Aq\u012bda T.ah.\u0101wiyya. This is one of the most reliable concise early texts of Sunni doctrine.4Among its tenets is the creed that the Twelve Im\u0101ms, the\u2018 I t ra, and the Companions \u2013 All\u0101h be well-pleased with them all \u2013 put together are below the level of a single Prophet: \u00a798. \u201cWe do not prefer any of the saintly men among the Community over any of the Prophets but rather we say that any one of the Prophets is better than all thea wliy\u0101 \u2019 put together.\u201d
TheT.a h.\u0101wiy y a received many commentaries. Shaykh Muh. ammad al-Ya\u2018q\u016bb\u012b said the most reliable is Akmal al-D\u012bn al-B\u0101bart\u012b\u2019s, a M\u0101tur\u012bd\u012b commentary. Among the reliable Ash\u2018ar\u012b commentaries: \u2018Abd al- Ghan\u012b al-Ghunaym\u012b al-Mayd\u0101n\u012b\u2019s and al-B\u0101j\u016br\u012b\u2019s (Ash\u2018ar\u012b). Al-Kawthar\u012b said:
The \u2018Aq\u012bda Tah.\u0101wiyya received several commentaries, among them that of Najm al-D\u012bn Ab\u016b Shuj\u0101\u2018 Bakbars al-N\u0101s.ir\u012b al-Baghd\u0101d\u012b \u2013 among Sharaf al-D\u012bn al-Dimy\u0101t.\u012b\u2019s Shaykhs \u2013 that of Sir\u0101j al-D\u012bn \u2018Umar ibn Ish.\u0101q al-Ghaznaw\u012b al-Mis.r\u012b, that of Mah. m\u016bd ibn Ah. mad ibn Mas\u2018\u016bd al-Q\u016bnaw\u012b, that of Sharh. al-S. adr \u2018Al\u012b ibn Muh. ammad al-Adhra\u2018\u012b and others. A commentary was published, authored by an unknown [Ibn
2This claim, even if untrue, indicates the high rank of al-T. ah.\u0101w\u012b and his work.
3Ibn H. ajar, Inb\u0101\u2019 al-Ghumr (1:62).
4Cf.t h erevi val . co . u k/ ar t i cl es / aq eed a_ t ah awi . h t m
Shu\u2018ayb al-Arna\u2019\u016bt. who describes the Im\u0101m\u2019s method as gathering two authentic but apparently contradictory h. ad\u012bths in each chapter \u2013 without specific topical order or organization \u2013 and discussing the various ways in which the purported contradiction is resolved according to the principles of lexical usage,ta fs\u012br, jurisprudence andq iy\u0101 s, with special consideration for the principles in use in the H. anaf\u012b
Jawz\u012b\u2019s Ghar\u012bb al-H. ad\u012bth, and al-Zamakhshar\u012b\u2019sa l- F\u0101 \u2019iq. Al-T. ah.\u0101w\u012b narrates in theMu sh kil the famous h.ad\u012bth in which the Prophet! rested or received revelation with his head in \u2018Al\u012b\u2019s lap until sunset, after which \u2013 since \u2018Al\u012b had not prayed\u2018As.r \u2013 the Prophet! raised his hand and supplicated until the sun moved back up from the West.6 Al-T. ah.\u0101w\u012b mentioned that the h. ad\u012bth Master Ah. mad ibn S.\u0101lih. (d. 248) considered it a duty for every\u2018\u0100 lim to memorize this h. ad\u012bth as it provides one of the proofs of Prophethood. Yet Ibn Taymiyya summarily dismissed al-T. ah.\u0101w\u012b\u2019s expertise in h. ad\u012bth because of this narration, which he declared forged in his Minh\u0101j al-Sunna al-Nabawiyya as did Ibn al-Jawz\u012b before him. Al-Q\u0101d.\u012b \u2018Iy\u0101d. considered it authentic and Ibn H.ajar rejected the claim of forgery, authenticating a similar h. ad\u012bth from J\u0101bir: \u201cThe Prophet! commanded the sun which lagged back for an hour during
ibn Muh. ammad ibn Ab\u012b al-\u2018Izz, S. adr al-D\u012bn al-Dimashq\u012b al-S.\u0101lih.\u012b (d. 792) is unknown in the H. anaf\u012b biographical sources but is mentioned in other sources due to the affair that led to his eleven-month imprisonment from 784 to 785. Ibn \u2018Im\u0101d al-H. anbal\u012b (d. 1089) devoted 5 lines to him in his ten-volume Shadhar\u0101t al-Dhahab (6:326) in which he mentions that Ibn Ab\u012b al-\u2018Izz was the H. anaf\u012b judge for Damascus, then for Cairo for one month, after which he excused himself and came back to Damascus. There, he was imprisoned for a certain matter and remained incar- cerated until a new governor came and gave him amnesty. The story is told by Ibn H. ajar in the chapter for the year 784 in his Inb\u0101\u2019 al-Ghumr (1:258-260).
al-Haytham\u012b(8:297), al-H. usayn by al-D\u016bl\u0101b\u012b ina l -Dh u rri yya t a l -T.\u0101 h i ra (p. 91 #164), and \u2018Al\u012b; deemed s. a h.\u012b h. by al- Suy\u016bt.\u012b after al-Q\u0101d.\u012b \u2018Iy\u0101d. ina l -S h i f\u0101 \u2019 (p. 347-348 #684) cf.F a yd.a l -Qa d.\u012br(#7889), Ibn al-H. adhdh\u0101\u2019 al-H. ask\u0101n\u012b (d. >470), Ibn Burh\u0101n al-D\u012bn al-H. alab\u012b, and others while Ibn al-Jawz\u012b, Ibn Taymiyya, al-Mizz\u012b, al-Dhahab\u012b in the
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