Reconstructing time

1.1 The patterns of the stars

1.2 Structural relics

1.3 Material relics

1.4 Ethereal relics

1.5 Cosmological principles

2.1 The redshift

2.2 The expanding Universe

2.3 The distance scale

2.4 The Hubble constant

2.5 The deceleration parameter

2.6 The age of the Universe

2.7 The steady-state theory

2.8 The evolving Universe

2.9 Problems

3.1 The mean mass density of the Universe

3.1.1 The critical density

3.1.2 The density parameter

3.1.3 Contributions to the density

3.2 Determining the matter density

3.3 The mean luminosity density

3.3.1 Comoving volume

3.3.2 Luminosity function

3.3.3 Luminosity density

3.4 The mass-to-luminosity ratios of galaxies

3.4.1 Rotation curves

3.4.2 Elliptical galaxies

3.5 The virial theorem

3.6 The mass-to-luminosity ratios of rich clusters

3.6.1 Virial masses of clusters

3.7 Baryonic matter

3.8 Intracluster gas

3.9 The gravitational lensing method

3.10 The intercluster medium

3.11 The non-baryonic dark matter

3.12 Dark matter candidates

3.12.1 Massive neutrinos?

3.12.2 Axions?

3.12.3 Neutralinos?

3.13 The search for WIMPS

3.14 Antimatter

3.15 Appendix. Derivation of the virial theorem

3.16 Problems

Radiation

4.1 Sources of background radiation

4.1.1 The radio background

4.1.2 Infrared background

4.1.3 Optical background

4.1.4 Other backgrounds

4.2 The microwave background

4.2.1 Isotropy

4.3 The hot big bang

4.3.1 The cosmic radiation background in the steady-state theory

4.4 Radiation and expansion

4.4.1 Redshift and expansion

4.4.2 Evolution of the Planck spectrum

4.4.3 Evolution of energy density

4.4.4 Entropy of radiation

4.5 Nevertheless it moves

4.5.1 Measurements of motion

4.6 The x-ray background

4.7 Problems

Relativity

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Space geometry

5.3 Relativistic geometry

5.3.1 The principle of equivalence

5.3.2 Physical relativity

5.4 Isotropic and homogeneous geometry

5.4.1 Homogeneity of the 2-sphere

5.4.2 Homogeneity of the metric

5.4.3 Uniqueness of the space metric

5.4.4 Uniqueness of the spacetime metric

5.5 Other forms of the metric

5.5.1 A radial coordinate related to area

5.5.2 A radial coordinate related to proper distance

5.6 Open and closed spaces

5.7 Fundamental (or comoving) observers

5.8 Redshift

5.9 The velocity–distance law

5.10 Time dilation

5.11 The ﬁeld equations

5.11.1 Equations of state

5.11.2 The cosmological constant

5.11.3 The critical density

5.12 The dust Universe

5.12.1 Evolution of the density parameter

5.12.2 Evolution of the Hubble parameter

5.13 The relationship between redshift and time

5.13.1 Newtonian interpretation

5.14 Explicit solutions

5.14.1 p=0, k=0, =0, the Einstein–de Sitter model

5.15.1 Negative

5.15.2 Positive

5.15.3 Positive and critical density

5.16 The radiation Universe

5.16.1 The relation between temperature and time

5.17 Light propagation in an expanding Universe

5.18 The Hubble sphere

5.19 The particle horizon

5.20 Alternative equations of state

5.21 Problems

6.1 The classical tests

6.2 The Mattig relation

6.2.2 The general case p = 0, = 0

6.3 The angular diameter–redshift test

6.3.1 Theory

6.3.2 Observations

6.4 The apparent magnitude–redshift test

6.4.1 Theory

6.4.2 The K-correction

6.4.3 Magnitude versus redshift: observations

6.5 The geometry of number counts: theory

6.5.1 Number counts: observations

6.5.2 The galaxy number-magnitude test

6.6 The timescale test

6.6.1 The ages of the oldest stars

6.7 The lensed quasar test

6.8 Problems with big-bang cosmology

6.8.1 The horizon problem

6.8.2 The ﬂatness problem

6.8.3 The age problem

6.8.4 The singularity problem

6.9 Alternative cosmologies

6.10 Problems

Hot big bang

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Equilibrium thermodynamics

7.2.1 Evolution of temperature: relativistic particles

7.2.2 Evolution of temperature: non-relativistic particles

7.3 The plasma Universe

7.4 The matter era

7.5 The radiation era

7.5.1 Temperature and time

7.5.2 Timescales: the Gamow criterion

7.6 The era of equilibrium

7.7 The GUT era: baryogenesis

7.9.2 Helium

7.9.3 Light elements

7.9.4 Abundances and cosmology

7.10 The plasma era

7.10.1 Thomson scattering

7.10.2 Free–free absorption

7.10.3 Compton scattering

7.11 Decoupling

7.12 Recombination

7.13 Last scattering

7.14 Perturbations

7.15 Appendix A. Thermal distributions

7.15.1 Chemical potentials

7.15.2 Photon energy density

7.15.3 Photon number density

7.15.4 Relativistic neutrinos

7.15.5 Relativistic electrons

7.15.6 Entropy densities

7.16 Appendix B. The Saha equation

7.17 Appendix C. Constancy of η

7.18 Problems

8.1 The horizon problem

8.2 The ﬂatness problem

8.3 Origin of structure

8.4 Mechanisms

8.4.1 Equation of motion for the inﬂaton ﬁeld

8.4.2 Equation of state

8.4.3 Slow roll

8.5 Fluctuations

8.6 Starting inﬂation

8.7 Stopping inﬂation

8.7.1 Particle physics and inﬂation

8.8 Topological defects

8.9 Problems

Structure

9.1 The problem of structure

9.2 Observations

9.2.1 The edge of the Universe

9.3 Surveys and catalogues

9.4 Large-scale structures

9.5 Correlations

9.5.1 Correlation functions

9.5.2 Linear distribution

9.5.3 The angular correlation function

9.5.4 Results

9.6 Bias

9.7 Growth of perturbations

9.7.1 Static background, zero pressure

9.7.2 Expanding background

9.8 The Jeans’ mass

9.9 Adiabatic perturbations

9.10 Isocurvature (isothermal) perturbations

9.11 Superhorizon size perturbations

9.12 Dissipation

9.13 The spectrum of ﬂuctuations

9.14 Structure formation in baryonic models

9.15 Dark matter models

9.15.1 Growth of ﬂuctuations in dark matter models

9.16 Observations of the microwave background

9.17 Appendix A

9.18 Appendix B

9.19 Problems

10.1 Homogeneous anisotropy

10.1.1 Kasner solution

10.2 Growing modes

10.3 The rotating Universe

10.4 The arrow of time

Reference material

Constants

Useful quantities

Formulae

Symbols

References

Index