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Table Of Contents

Introduction
1.1 Why Experiment?
1.2 Components of an Experiment
2.3 Performing a Randomization
2.4 Randomization for Inference
2.4.1 The paired t-test
2.4.2 Two-sample t-test
2.4.3 Randomization inference and standard inference
2.5 Further Reading and Extensions
2.6 Problems
Completely Randomized Designs
3.1 Structure of a CRD
3.2 Preliminary Exploratory Analysis
3.3 Models and Parameters
3.4 Estimating Parameters
3.5 Comparing Models: The Analysis of Variance
3.6 Mechanics of ANOVA
3.7 Why ANOVA Works
3.8 Back to Model Comparison
3.9 Side-by-Side Plots
3.10 Dose-Response Modeling
3.11 Further Reading and Extensions
3.12 Problems
Looking for Specific Differences—Contrasts
4.1 Contrast Basics
4.2 Inference for Contrasts
4.3 Orthogonal Contrasts
4.4 Polynomial Contrasts
4.5 Further Reading and Extensions
4.6 Problems
Multiple Comparisons
5.1 Error Rates
5.2 Bonferroni-Based Methods
5.3 The Scheff´e Method for All Contrasts 85
5.3 The Scheff´e Method for All Contrasts
5.4 Pairwise Comparisons
5.4.1 Displaying the results
5.4.2 The Studentized range
5.4.3 Simultaneous confidence intervals
5.4.4 Strong familywise error rate
5.4.5 False discovery rate
5.4.6 Experimentwise error rate
5.4.7 Comparisonwise error rate
5.4.8 Pairwise testing reprise
5.4.10 Confident directions
5.5 Comparison with Control or the Best
5.5.1 Comparison with a control
5.5.2 Comparison with the best
5.6 Reality Check on Coverage Rates
5.7 A Warning About Conditioning
5.8 Some Controversy
5.9 Further Reading and Extensions
5.10 Problems
Checking Assumptions
6.1 Assumptions
6.2 Transformations
6.3 Assessing Violations of Assumptions
6.3.1 Assessing nonnormality
6.3.2 Assessing nonconstant variance
6.3.3 Assessing dependence
6.4 Fixing Problems
6.4.1 Accommodating nonnormality
6.4.2 Accommodating nonconstant variance
6.4.3 Accommodating dependence
6.5 Effects of Incorrect Assumptions
6.5.1 Effects of nonnormality
6.5.2 Effects of nonconstant variance
6.5.3 Effects of dependence
6.6 Implications for Design
6.7 Further Reading and Extensions
6.8 Problems
Power and Sample Size
7.1 Approaches to Sample Size Selection
7.2 Sample Size for Confidence Intervals
7.3 Power and Sample Size for ANOVA 153
7.3 Power and Sample Size for ANOVA
7.4 Power and Sample Size for a Contrast
7.5 More about Units and Measurement Units
7.6 Allocation of Units for Two Special Cases
7.7 Further Reading and Extensions
7.8 Problems
Factorial Treatment Structure
8.1 Factorial Structure
8.2 Factorial Analysis: Main Effect and Interaction
8.3 Advantages of Factorials
8.4 Visualizing Interaction
8.5 Models with Parameters
8.6 The Analysis of Variance for Balanced Factorials 179
8.6 The Analysis of Variance for Balanced Factorials
8.7 General Factorial Models
8.8 Assumptions and Transformations
8.9 Single Replicates
8.10 Pooling Terms into Error
8.11 Hierarchy
8.12 Problems
A Closer Look at Factorial Data
9.1 Contrasts for Factorial Data
9.2 Modeling Interaction
9.2.1 Interaction plots
9.2.2 One-cell interaction
9.2.3 Quantitative factors
9.2.4 Tukey one-degree-of-freedom for nonadditivity
9.3 Further Reading and Extensions
9.4 Problems
Further Topics in Factorials
10.1 Unbalanced Data
10.1.1 Sums of squares in unbalanced data
10.1.2 Building models
10.1.3 Testing hypotheses
10.1.4 Empty cells
10.2 Multiple Comparisons
10.3 Power and Sample Size
10.4 Two-Series Factorials
10.4.1 Contrasts
10.4.2 Single replicates
10.5 Further Reading and Extensions
10.6 Problems
Random Effects
11.1 Models for Random Effects
11.2 Why Use Random Effects?
11.3 ANOVA for Random Effects
11.4 Approximate Tests
11.5 Point Estimates of Variance Components
11.6 Confidence Intervals for Variance Components 267
11.6 Confidence Intervals for Variance Components
11.7 Assumptions
11.8 Power
11.9 Further Reading and Extensions
11.10 Problems
Nesting, Mixed Effects, and Expected Mean Squares
12.1 Nesting Versus Crossing
12.2 Why Nesting?
12.3 Crossed and Nested Factors
12.4 Mixed Effects
12.5 Choosing a Model
12.6 Hasse Diagrams and Expected Mean Squares 289
12.6 Hasse Diagrams and Expected Mean Squares
12.6.1 Test denominators
12.6.2 Expected mean squares
12.10 Problems
Complete Block Designs
13.1 Blocking
13.2 The Randomized Complete Block Design
13.2.1 Why and when to use the RCB
13.2.2 Analysis for the RCB
13.2.3 How well did the blocking work?
13.2.4 Balance and missing data
13.3 LatinSquares and Related Row/Column Designs
13.3.1 The crossover design
13.3.2 Randomizing the LS design
13.3.3 Analysis for the LS design
13.3.4 Replicating Latin Squares
13.3.5 Efficiency of Latin Squares
13.3.6 Designs balanced for residual effects
13.4 Graeco-Latin Squares
13.5 Further Reading and Extensions
13.6 Problems
Incomplete Block Designs
14.1 Balanced Incomplete Block Designs
14.1.1 Intrablock analysis of the BIBD
14.1.2 Interblock information
14.2 Row and Column Incomplete Blocks
14.3 Partially Balanced Incomplete Blocks
14.4 Cyclic Designs
14.5 Square, Cubic, and Rectangular Lattices
14.6 Alpha Designs
15.1.1 Two blocks
15.1.2 Four or more blocks
15.1.3 Analysis of an unreplicated confounded two-series
15.1.4 Replicating a confounded two-series
15.1.5 Double confounding
15.2 Confounding the Three-Series Factorial
15.2.1 Building the design
15.2.2 Confounded effects
15.2.3 Analysis of confounded three-series
15.3 Further Reading and Extensions
15.4 Problems
Split-Plot Designs
16.1 What Is a Split Plot?
16.2 Fancier Split Plots
16.3 Analysis of a Split Plot
16.4 Split-Split Plots
16.5 Other Generalizations of Split Plots
16.6 Repeated Measures
16.7 Crossover Designs
16.8 Further Reading and Extensions
16.9 Problems
Designs with Covariates
17.1 The Basic Covariate Model
17.2 When Treatments Change Covariates
17.3 Other Covariate Models
17.4 Further Reading and Extensions
17.5 Problems
Fractional Factorials
18.1 Why Fraction?
18.2 Fractioning the Two-Series
18.3 Analyzing a 2k−q
18.4 Resolution and Projection
18.5 Confounding a Fractional Factorial
18.6 De-aliasing
18.7 Fold-Over
18.8 Sequences of Fractions
18.9 Fractioning the Three-Series
18.10 Problems with Fractional Factorials
18.11 Using Fractional Factorials in Off-Line Quality Control 493
18.11 Using Fractional Factorials in Off-Line Quality Control
18.11.1 Designing an off-line quality experiment
18.11.2 Analysis of off-line quality experiments
18.12 Further Reading and Extensions
18.13 Problems
Response Surface Designs
19.1 Visualizing the Response
19.2 First-Order Models
19.3 First-Order Designs
19.4 Analyzing First-Order Data
19.5 Second-Order Models
19.6 Second-Order Designs
19.7 Second-Order Analysis
19.8 Mixture Experiments
19.8.1 Designs for mixtures
19.8.2 Models for mixture designs
19.9 Further Reading and Extensions
19.10 Problems
On Your Own
20.1 Experimental Context
20.2 Experiments by the Numbers
20.3 Final Project
Bibliography
Linear Models for Fixed Effects
A.1 Models
A.2 Least Squares
A.3 Comparison of Models
A.4 Projections
A.5 Random Variation
A.6 Estimable Functions
A.7 Contrasts
A.8 The Scheff´e Method 579
A.8 The Scheff´e Method
A.9 Problems
Notation
Experimental Design Plans
C.1 Latin Squares
C.1.1 Standard Latin Squares
C.1.2 Orthogonal Latin Squares
C.2 Balanced Incomplete Block Designs
C.3 Efficient Cyclic Designs 615
C.3 Efficient Cyclic Designs
C.4 Alpha Designs
C.5 Two-Series Confounding and Fractioning Plans 617
C.5 Two-Series Confounding and Fractioning Plans
Index
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Experimentos

Experimentos

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Published by Gerardo Lopez

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Published by: Gerardo Lopez on Nov 02, 2011
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