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Dictionar Termeni Specifici Auto

Dictionar Termeni Specifici Auto

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Published by Omeo
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Published by: Omeo on Nov 02, 2011
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01/25/2013

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S.C. Timasato Personnel Recruitment S.R.L.Punct lucru: Str. Stefan cel Mare Bl 27, Sc A, ap 4, Mun. Bacau, cod 600360telefon/fax: (+)40-234-587390mobil: (+)40-744-593654E-mail:office@timasato.ro Web site: www.timasato.ro 
Ro-trucker Project
A
ABS (Antilock Braking System)
Computer, sensors and solenoid valves which together monitor wheel speed and modulate braking force if wheel lockup is sensed during braking. Helps the driver retain control of the vehicle during heavy braking on slippery roads.
AFV (Alternative Fueled Vehicle)
Vehicle powered by a fuel other than gasoline or diesel.
Air Ride Suspension
Suspension which supports the load on air-filled rubber bags rather than steel springs. Compressed air is supplied bythe same engine-driven air compressor and reservoir tanks which provide air to the air brake system.
ATC (Automatic Traction Control)
Usually an optional feature based on ABS, it prevents spinning of the drive wheels under power onslippery surfaces by braking individual wheels and/or reducing engine throttle. Also called ASR, an acronym sometimes loosely translatedfrom the German as anti-spin regulation.
ATV (All Terrain Vehicle)
Vehicle designed for any type of terrain.
AVI (Automatic Vehicle Identification)
System combining an on-board transponder with roadside receivers to automate identification of vehicles. Uses include electronic toll collection and stolen vehicle detection. (seeIVHS)
AVL (Automated Vehicle Location)
Class of technologies designed to locate vehicles for fleet management purposes and for stolen vehiclerecovery. Infrastructure can be land-based radio towers or satellites. (seeIVHS)
Axle
Structural component to which wheels, brakes and suspension are attached. Drive axles are those with powered wheels.
o
Front axle is usually called the steer axle.
o
Pusher axles are unpowered and go ahead of drive axles.
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Rear axles may be drive, tag or pusher types.
o
Tag axles are unpowered and go behind drive axles.
A-PILLAR OR A-POST: In the side view of the car, the foremost roof support of a vehicle, located in most instances between the outer edge of thewindshield and the leading edge of the front door upper.ACCUMULATOR: The low side of an air-conditioning system. It removes moisture from (and stores) liquid refrigerant.ACTUAL CASH VALUE: The amount of money invested in the purchase and repairs of a used vehicle. Also known as ACV, this represents theamount of out of pocket expense a dealer or broker is "into" a car.AFTERMARKET (REPLACEMENT MARKET): all products and services used in the repair and maintenance of vehicles.AFTERMARKET PART: Goods not for use as original equipment in the production of light-duty vehicles or heavy-duty vehicles, i.e. products andservices used in the repair and maintenance of these vehicles. Any new repair part not produced by the original vehicle manufacturer appearanceallowance: An agreed compensation from the insurance company for repairs not performed, sometimes appropriate for superficial damage.1
 
 
AGENT OR BROKER: An intermediary with legal authority to operate on behalf of the manufacturer.AIR BAG: The air bag, also known as a Supplemental Inflatable Restraint System, is a passive safety device, supplemental to safety belts, thatinflates to provide a cushion to absorb impact forces during moderate to severe frontal collisions. This system can help to lessen the chance of contactwith the steering wheel, instrument panel and windshield. The air bag is actuated automatically by sensors located in the front of the vehicle. Tomaximize effectiveness, seat and shoulder belts must always be used in conjunction with this systemAIRFOIL: An aerodynamic device designed to improve traction by increasing the down force on the car. The use of airfoils (also called wings)increases the cornering capability and improves stability at speed, but often at the expense of additional aerodynamic drag.AIR/FUEL RATIO: The ratio of air to gasoline in the fuel mixture drawn into the engine.AIR INJECTION: One method of reducing harmful exhaust emissions by injecting air into each of the exhaust ports of an engine. The fresh air entering the hot exhaust manifold causes any remaining fuel to be burned before it can exit the tailpipe. A system that injects air into the exhaust ports of the engine for combustion of unburned hydrocarbons in the exhaust gases, thus producing "cleaner" exhaust emissions.AIR MANAGEMENT VALVES: One-way valves that prevent exhaust gases from entering the air pump.ALIGNMENT: Generally refers to wheel alignment, which is the proper adjustment of the car's front and rear suspension for camber, toe, caster andride height.ALLOY WHEELS: A generic term used to describe any non-steel road wheel. The most common alloy wheels are cast aluminum. Technically, analloy is a mixture of two or more metals. These wheels are known for their light weight and strength.ALL-WHEEL DRIVE: Often confused with Four-Wheel Drive (4WD), this drive system features four, full-time active drive wheels to reduce wheelslippage and provide greater driver control over the vehicle. All-Wheel Drive automatically splits engine torque between the front and rear wheels asneeded, improving on-road traction in unfavorable road conditions. Unlike Four-Wheel Drive, All-Wheel Drive is an on-road system and is notdesigned for off-road use. AWD does not require the driver to actively engage the system. It is operational at all times, and requires no switches,lights or visor instructions for system operation.ALTERNATOR: A device used for converting mechanical energy into electrical energy. It produces alternating current (AC) for the car by spinninga magnet inside a stationary conductor.AMERICAN AUTOMOBILE LABELING ACT (AALA): Regulations requiring vehicle manufacturers to include content information on vehiclelabels for cars and trucks for sale in the U.S. after October 1, 1994.AMPERE: The rate of flow of electrical current present when one volt of electrical pressure is applied against one ohm of electrical resistance.ANALOG COMPUTER: Any microprocessor that uses similar (analogous) electrical signals to make its calculations.ANTIFREEZE: A liquid mixed with water to keep the water from freezing in the cooling system.ANTILOCK BRAKES: A brake system that's controlled by computer to reduce wheel skid and prevent wheel lockup. It helps you to keep control of the car on a slippery surface and when braking hard in an emergency. Don't "pump" antilock brakes in a skid, as you would with standard brakes, or they'll be less effective.ANTI-LOCK BRAKE SYSTEM (ABS): System that automatically controls wheel slip or prevents sustained wheel-locking on braking. On a vehicleequipped with Anti-Lock Brakes, the wheels are equipped with speed sensors. When a sensor determines that a wheel is decelerating so rapidly thatlockup may occur, the Electro-Hydraulic Control Unit (EHCU) is activated. The EHCU then modulates the brake pressure in the appropriate brakelines by means of the solenoid-operated valves. This is intended to prevent wheel lockup and help the vehicle maintain directional stability during potentially hazardous braking situations. (See also: Rear-Wheel Anti-Lock and Four-Wheel Anti-Lock.)ARMATURE: A laminated, soft iron core wrapped by a wire that converts electrical energy to mechanical energy as in a motor or relay. Whenrotated in a magnetic field, it changes mechanical energy into electrical energy as in a generator.2
 
ASE (AUTOMOTIVE SERVICE EXCELLENCE): Helps improve the quality of vehicle repair and service through the testing and certification of automotive repair technicians. It is a valuable yardstick by which to measure the knowledge and skills of individual technicians as well as thecommitment to quality of the repair facility employing ASE-certified professionals.ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE: the pressure on the earth's surface caused by the weight of the air in the atmosphere. At sea level, this pressure is 14.7 psi at 32 degrees F (101 kPa at 0 degrees C).ATOMIZATION: The breaking down of a liquid into a fine mist that can be suspended in air.AUTOMATED GUIDED VEHICLE SYSTEM (AGVS): Vehicles equipped with automatic guidance equipment which follow a prescribed path,stopping at each machining or assembly station for manual loading and unloading of parts.AUTOMATIC LOCKING FRONT HUBS: Found in some four-wheel drive vehicles, this allows the driver to engage, or "lock," the front axle hubswithout leaving the vehicle.AXIAL PLAY: Movement parallel to a shaft or bearing bore.AXLE: A shaft that transfers power from the differential to the wheels.AXLE RATIO: The ratio between the rotational speed (RPM) of the drive shaft and that of the driven wheel. Gear reduction in final drive isdetermined by dividing the number of teeth on the ring gear by the number of teeth on the pinion gear.
B
BBC
Distance from a truck's front bumper to the back of its cab.
Bill of Lading
Itemized list of goods contained in a shipment.
Blind Spot
Areas around a commercial vehicle that are not visible to the driver either through the windshield, side windows or mirrors.
Bobtail
Tractor operating without a trailer. Also refers to straight truck.
Bogie (also spelled bogey)
Assembly of two or more axles, usually a pair in tandem.
Brake Horsepower (bhp)
Engine horsepower rating as determined by brake dynamometer testing. (see Horsepower)
Bridge Formula
A bridge protection formula used by federal and state governments to regulate the amount of weight that can be put oneach of a vehicle's axles, and how far apart the axles (or groups of axles) must be to legally carry a given weight.
Bunk
SeeSleeper.
B-PILLAR: The roof support between a vehicle's front door window and rear side window, if there is one.BACKFIRE: The sudden combustion of gases in the intake or exhaust system that results in a loud explosion.BACKLASH: The clearance or play between two parts, such as meshed gears.BACKPRESSURE: Restrictions in the exhaust system that slow the exit of exhaust gases from the combustion chamber.BALANCE SHAFT: A shaft designed so that, as it turns, it counter rotates the rotational direction of the engine crankshaft in a manner that reducesor cancels out some of the vibration produced by the engine.BALL BEARING: A bearing made up of hardened inner and outer races between which hardened steel balls roll.BALL JOINT: A flexible joint consisting of a ball within a socket. Ball joints act as pivots which allow turning of the front wheels and compensatefor changes in the wheel and steering geometry's that occur while driving.BALLAST RESISTOR: A resister in the primary ignition circuit that lowers voltage after the engine is started to reduce wear on ignitioncomponents.BASE-COAT/CLEAR COAT: A paint system that adds a final clear-coat paint layer over primer and color coats to provide a deep, "wet-look" shinethat resists fading.3

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