treatment methods for removing methane from drinking
Whenfracking pollutes water sources, households and smallwater systems that cannot afford to treat their water have
to connect to a water system owned by a private utility. Forexample, after natural gas drilling contaminated ground-water wells in Dimock, Pa., the state funded a $12 millionproject to connect 18 homes in the community to Pennsyl-vania American Water’s water system.
Hydraulic fracturing requires a “tremendous amount ofwater,” in the words of Aqua America’s DeBenedictis.
In2011, U.S. natural gas fracking operations used an esti-mated 80 billion gallons of water (see table).
In 2011, DeBenedictis predicted that water usage in theMarcellus Shale would grow “geometrically” in a yearor two.
To capitalize on this market, Aqua Americadeveloped bulk water stations next to highways wheretrucks can collect water for gas drillers.
As of 2011, it hadeight site locations: six in Pennsylvania, one in New Yorkand one in Ohio.
DeBenedictis emphasized frequently that the stations
whichhe called a “great public service,”
but this effect, if any-thing, is incidental or at least secondary to the company’sprimary objective. Aqua America placed the stationsoff major highways to appeal to drillers by cutting theirtransportation costs.
“We’ve designed the bulk stationscompletely around the needs of the Marcellus Shaleindustry including technology to track who is taking waterand how much they are taking,” DeBenedictis said in acorporate brochure.
Filling stations are not the only way that the companyplanned to tap the shale water market.
In September2011, Aqua America partnered with an energy servicescompany and invested $12 million to build and operate an18-mile pipeline to supply fresh water to Marcellus Shalegas producers, including Range Resources Corporation.
According to DeBenedictis, water sales to drillers are
drillers than to regular customers like households.
He ex-pected the company’s Marcellus activity to boost sales by0.3 percent to 0.4 percent,
which would be $2 million to$3 million a year, based on its 2010 operating revenues.
million gallons of water to a dozen gas-drilling companies,making $702,000 in revenue.
It sold water at 29distribution points,
mostly through pipeline extensionsfrom its water systems.
The company gave gas drillers amajor discount on the price of water. On average, drillerspaid 45 percent less than residential customers per 1,000gallons of water (see table next page).Pennsylvania American Water’s natural gas drilling com-pany customers included ALTA Operating Company, LLC;Cabot Oil & Gas Corporation; Carrizo Oil & Gas, Inc.,EOG Resources, Inc. and Rex Energy Corporation.
Fracking produces billions of gallons of contaminatedwastewater each year.
For each frack, about 1 million