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Two Phase Biomass Air-steam Gasification Model for Fluidized Bed Reactors_ Part I—model Development Numerical)

Two Phase Biomass Air-steam Gasification Model for Fluidized Bed Reactors_ Part I—model Development Numerical)

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Biomass and Bioenergy 22 (2002) 439\u2013462
Two phase biomass air-steam gasi\u00ffcation model for \ue000uidized
bed reactors: Part I\u2014model development
Samy S. Sadakaa;\u2217, A.E. Ghalyb, M.A. Sabbahc

aAgricultural and Biosystems Engineering Department, Iowa State University, NSRIC, Ames, IA, 50011, USA
bBiological Engineering Department, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada, B3J.2X4
cDesert Development Center, American University - Cairo, Cairo, Egypt

Received 29 April 1999; received in revised form 26 November 2001; accepted 16 January 2002
Abstract

A two-phase model capable of predicting the performance of \ue000uidized bed biomass air-steam gasi\u00ffcation reactor during dynamic and steady state operations was developed based on the two phase theory of \ue000uidization. Material and energy balances were taken into consideration and the minimization of free energy technique was used to calculate the gas mole fractions. The \ue000uidized bed was divided into three zones (jetting, bubbling and slugging) and the mass and heat transfer coe\ue001cients were calculated for each zone in both bubble and emulsion phases. The model includes the hydrodynamics, transport and thermodynamic properties of \ue000uidized bed. The \u00ffnite element method was used to solve the partial di\ue002erential equations. The input variables of the computer program included \ue000uidization velocity, steam \ue000ow rate and biomass to steam ratio. The model is capable of predicting the bed temperature, gas mole fractions, higher heating value and production rate.? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords:Fluidization velocity; Air-steam; Gasi\u00ffcation; Higher heating value; Model; Straw
1. Introduction

During the period 1991\u20131996, the world crop yields of sorghum, corn, rye, rice and wheat increased by 20.1%, 19.5%, 30.1%, 8.7% and 4.6%, respectively. Crop production will continue to increase to feed the ever-increasing population of the world. The current world production of cereals is about 2:0\u00d7 109metric tones [1]. This means that about 2:34\u00d7 109ton of straw are produced annually for which the market is becoming rather limited [2]. Ghaly et al. [3] reported that wheat crop alone yields over 750 million ton of straw of which 60\u201380% can be utilized for energy through energy conversion processes such as pyrolysis, combustion and gasi\u00ffcation. Gasi\u00ffcation is the process by which organic matter is converted to gas, tar and char through thermal decomposition in a low oxygen environment, followed by secondary reactions of the resulting volatiles [4]. The produced combustible char and tar can be burned with air to provide the necessary energy for processing [5].

\u2217Corresponding author. Tel.: +00-1-515-294-4330; fax: +00-1-515-294-4250.
E-mail address:sadaka@iastate.edu (S.S. Sadaka).
0961-9534/02/$ - see front matter? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
PII: S0961-9534(02)00023-5
440
S.S. Sadaka et al. / Biomass and Bioenergy 22 (2002) 439\u2013462
Nomenclature
\ue000
is a weighting coe\ue001cient lying between 0 and 1,Z =iZ; t =kt
\ue001
is the volume fraction of the emulsion phase (dimensionless)
\ue002
is the void fraction in the bed at minimum \ue000uidization (dimensionless)
\u00ff
is the weight of straw in the reactor (kg)
\ue003b
is the binary mixture density (kg m\u22123)
\ue001b
is the volume fraction of the bubble phase (dimensionless)
\ue003c
is the sand density (kg m\u22123)
\ue003cr
is the char density (kg m\u22123)
\ue001e
is the volume fraction of the emulsion phase (dimensionless)
\ue003f0i
is the heat of formation of speciesi at 25
\u25e6
C (kJ kmol\u22121)
\ue003g
is the density of the gas (kg m\u22123)
\ue003Gfi0
is the free energy of formation of compoundi at temperatureT (kJ kg\u22121)
\ue003H
is the enthalpy of gas (kJ kmol\u22121)
\ue003H
is the sensible heat of gaseous components in the bubbles (kJ kmol\u22121)
\ue003Hie
is the sensible heat of gaseous components in the emulsion (kJ kmol\u22121)
\ue003H0
rj
is the heat of reactionj at 25
\u25e6
C (kJ kmole\u22121)
\ue003Hrl
is the heat of reaction (1) at reference temperature (298:15 K) (kJ kmol\u22121)
\ue003ib
is the gas density in the bubble phase (kg m\u22123)
\ue003j
is the jet gas density (kg m\u22123)
\ue004k
is the reaction latent energy (kJ kg\u22121)
(kje)j
is the volume interchange coe\ue001cient (m3 m\u22123(jet) s\u22121)
\ue002mf
is the bed voidage at minimum \ue000uidization conditions (dimensionless)
\ue003s
is the density of sand particles (kg m\u22123)
\ue003Z
is the increment in axial direction (m)
\ue005
is the viscosity of the gas (kg m\u22121 s\u22121)
\ue005i
is the viscosity (N s m\u22122)
A
is the bed cross sectional area (m2)
a1-f1
are constants (dimensionless)
aik
is the number of atoms ofkth element present in each molecule of chemical species
(dimensionless)
Ar
is Archimedes number (dimensionless)
Cbiomass
is the weight of carbon in the straw (kg)
Cib
is the concentration ofith species in the bubble phase (kmol m\u22123)
Cie
is the concentration ofith species in the emulsion phase kmol m\u22123)
Cij
is the concentration ofith species in the jet region (kmol m\u22123)
Ci0
is the initial and inlet concentration of speciesi (kmol m\u22123)
Cis
is the concentration ofith species in the slugging region (kmol m\u22123)
Cpb
is the speci\u00ffc heat of the gas mixture in bubble phase (kJ kmol K\u22121)
Cpe
is the speci\u00ffc heat of the gas mixture in emulsion phase (kJ kmol K\u22121)
Cpg
is the mean heat capacity of the gas mixture (kJ kmol\u22121K\u22121)
Cpg;j
is the heat capacity of the jet (kJ kmol\u22121 K\u22121)
Cpj;i
is the heat capacity of gasi (kJ kmol\u22121 K\u22121)
S.S. Sadaka et al. / Biomass and Bioenergy 22 (2002) 439\u2013462
441
Cps
is the particle\u2019s speci\u00ffc heat (kJ kg\u22121 K\u22121)
Cs
is the concentration of the char (kg char kg inter solids\u22121)
d\ue006
is the nozzle diameter (m)
db
is the diameter of the binary mixture (m)
dbm
is the maximum bubble diameter (m)
db0
is the initial bubble diameter (m)
dc
is the diameter of alumina sand (m)
dcr
is the diameter of char (m)
Dg
is the gas di\ue002usivity (m2 s\u22121)
Dib
is the dispersion coe\ue001cient of theith species in the bubble phase (m2 s\u22121)
Die
is the dispersion coe\ue001cient of theith species in the emulsion phase (m2 s\u22121)
Dij
is the dispersion coe\ue001cient of theith species in the jet (m2 s\u22121)
Dis
is the dispersion coe\ue001cient of theith species in the slugging phase (m2 s\u22121)
dp
is the bubble diameter (m)
dp
is the mean particle diameter (m)
dpi
is the mean diameter of particles related to theith sieve in a sieve analysis (m)
dt
is the bed diameter (m)
F
is the global force vector
g
is the acceleration of gravity, 9:807 (m s\u22122)
H
is the bed height (m)
Hbe
is the heat interchange coe\ue001cient between bubbles and emulsion (kJ m\u22123 s\u22121 K\u22121)
HHV
is the higher heating value of the gas (kJ m\u22123)
hi
is the internal heat transfer coe\ue001cient (kJ m\u22122 s\u22121 K\u22121)
hj
is the heat transfer coe\ue001cient between jet and emulsion phase (kJ m\u22122 s\u22121 K\u22121)
h0
is the external heat transfer coe\ue001cient (kJ m\u22122 s\u22121 K\u22121)
hp
is the heat transfer coe\ue001cient (kJ m\u22122 s\u22121 K\u22121)
(Hbc)b
is the heat interchange coe\ue001cient between bubble and cloud (kJ m\u22123 s\u22121 K\u22121)
(Hbc)s
is the heat interchange coe\ue001cient between slug and cloud (kJ m\u22123 s\u22121 K\u22121)
(Hbe)b
is the heat interchange coe\ue001cient between bubble and emulsion (kJ m\u22123 s\u22121 K\u22121)
(Hbe)s
is the heat interchange coe\ue001cient between slug and emulsion (kJ m\u22123 s\u22121 K\u22121)
(Hce)b
is the heat interchange coe\ue001cient between cloud and emulsion (kJ m\u22123s\u22121 K\u22121)
(Hce)s
is the heat interchange coe\ue001cient between cloud and emulsion (kJ m\u22123 s\u22121 K\u22121)
(Hje)j
is the heat interchange coe\ue001cient (kJ m\u22123(jet) s\u22121 K\u22121)
K
is the global sti\ue001ness matrix
Kbe
is the volume interchange coe\ue001cient between bubble and emulsion (m3 m\u22123(bubble) s\u22121)
kg
is the thermal conductivity of the gas mixture (kJ m\u22121 s\u22121 K\u22121)
Kgi
is the gas thermal conductivity (MW m\u22121 K\u22121)
kj
is the mass transfer coe\ue001cient between jet and emulsion phase (kg m\u22122 s\u22121)
Kje
is the gas interchange coe\ue001cient between jet and emulsion phases (s\u22121)
Kse
is the gas interchange coe\ue001cient between the slugs and emulsion phase (s\u22121)
Lj
is the jet penetration depth (m)
Lsb
is the height at which transition from bubbling to slugging occurs (m)
lsb
is the height at which transition from bubbling to slugging occurs (m)
m
is the bed material mass (kg)

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