Why is social democracy inadequate?
In what sense was the USSR socialist?
What can be learnt from the failure of Soviet socialism?
What is the theoretical basis for a new socialism?
Synopsis of the book
Sources of inequality
Inﬁrmity and old age
Women’s economic subordination
Benefits of income redistribution
How much would one hour’s labour produce?
Equality more eﬀective than growth
Inequalities of labour
Diﬀerential payment for education/skill?
Speciﬁc labour shortages
Diﬀerential payment for ‘personal qualities’?
Skilled labour as a ‘produced input’
Comparison with historically existing socialism
Work, Time and Computers
Economies of time
Objective social accounting
Defining labour content
The problem of scale
The idea of complexity
Simplifying the labour value problem
High tech and intermediate tech solutions
Basic Concepts of Planning
Planning and control
Capitalist goals second order
What would be first-order goals?
Levels of planning
Planning the industrial structure
The environment and natural resources
The time dimension of production
Market and non-market distribution
Rights of citizenship
Freedom of choice
Coping with scarcity
Costs of metering
Planning in the USSR
Detail planning and stock constraints
A new plan-balancing algorithm
The harmony function
Stages of the algorithm
Economic cybernetics in Chile
Macro accounting in labour-time
Household saving and credit
Interest on savings?
Taxation and Accumulation
The Marketing of Consumer Goods
Consumer goods and the macro plan
Comparison with capitalist markets
Uniﬁed stock control
Standardised message formats
Obtaining technical coeﬃcients
Information: social problems
Information, performance measures and incentives
Evaluating the performance of enterprises
Statistical assessment for producer goods enterprises
Rewards and sanctions?
Technology and trade patterns
Low wage and high wage economies
Advantages of trade deficits
International trade in context of socialism
State demand for foreign currency
Alternatives to foreign exchange
Exchange rates, tourism and black markets
Improved terms of trade
Trade Between Socialist Countries
Trade and property
Less developed countries
What we advocate
Significance of national sovereignty
The activities of urban communes
Some leisure activities
Helping senior citizens
Basic rationale in terms of efficiency
Systems of payment and external trade
Distribution of tasks
Direct democracy or soviet democracy?
Institutions of classical democracy
‘Democratic centralism’—a dead end
Is democracy possible today?
Democracy and planning
The acephalous state
Who owns what?
Encoding property rights
What can be owned?
Pure capitalism and mixed capitalism
The Soviet model
The enterprise as focus of contradictions
The proposed communalist model
Individual property rights
Rights of Planning and economic projects
Property in land
Digression on the Ricardian theory of rent
Ownership of natural resources
Separation of control from beneﬁt
Some Contrary Views Considered
Distribution, values and prices
Diane Elson: the socialised market?
Aganbegyan: administrative and economic methods