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Table Of Contents

2.6 ISO speed settings
2.7 No reciprocity failure
2.8 How color is recorded
2.8.1 The Bayer matrix
2.8.2 Low-pass filtering
2.8.3 The Foveon
2.9 Nebulae are blue or pink, not red
Basic camera operation
3.1 Taking a picture manually
3.1.1 Shutter speed and aperture
3.1.2 Manual focusing
3.1.3 ISO speed
3.1.4 White balance
3.1.5 Do you want an automatic dark frame?
3.1.6 Tripping the shutter without shaking the telescope
3.1.7 Mirror vibration
3.1.8 Vibration-reducing lenses
3.2 The camera as your logbook
3.3 Limiting light emission from the camera
3.4 Menu settings
3.4.1 Things to set once and leave alone
3.4.2 Settings for an astrophotography session
3.4.3 Using Nikon Mode 3
3.5 Determining exposures
3.6 Cool-down between long exposures
Four simple projects
4.1 Telephoto Moon
4.2 Afocal Moon
4.3 Stars from a fixed tripod
4.4 Piggybacking
4.5 Going further
Coupling cameras to telescopes
5.1 Optical configurations
5.1.1 Types of telescopes
5.1.2 Types of coupling
5.2 Fitting it all together
5.3 Optical parameters
5.3.1 Focal length
5.3.2 Aperture
5.3.3 f-ratio and image brightness
5.3.4 Field of view
5.3.5 Image scale in pixels
5.3.6 “What is the magnification of this picture?”
5.4 Vignetting and edge-of-field quality
More about focal reducers
6.1 Key concepts
6.2 Optical calculations
6.3 Commercially available focal reducers
6.3.1 Lens types
6.3.2 Meade and Celestron f/6.3
6.3.3 Meade f/3.3
6.3.4 Others
Lenses for piggybacking
7.1 Why you need another lens
7.1.1 Big lens or small telescope?
7.1.2 Field of view
7.1.3 f-ratio
7.1.4 Zoom or non-zoom?
7.2 Lens quality
7.2.1 Sharpness, vignetting, distortion, and bokeh
7.2.2 Reading MTF curves
7.2.3 Telecentricity
7.2.4 Construction quality
7.2.5 Which lenses fit which cameras?
7.3 Testing a lens
7.4 Diffraction spikes around the stars
7.5 Lens mount adapters
7.5.1 Adapter quality
7.5.2 The classic M42 lens mount
7.6.2 The triplet and its descendants
7.6.3 The double Gauss
7.6.4 Telephoto and retrofocus lenses
7.6.5 Macro lenses
8.1.1 The viewfinder eyepiece
8.1.2 The Canon Angle Finder C
8.2 LCD focusing
8.2.1 Confirmation by magnified playback
8.3 Computer focusing
8.4 Other focusing aids
8.4.1 Diffraction focusing
8.4.2 Scheiner disk (Hartmann mask)
8.4.3 Parfocal eyepiece
8.4.4 Knife-edge and Ronchi focusing
8.5 Focusing telescopes with moving mirrors
Tracking the stars
9.1 Two ways to track the stars
9.2 The rules have changed
9.3 Setting up an equatorial mount
9.3.1 Using a wedge
9.3.2 Finding the pole
9.3.3 The drift method
9.4 Guiding
9.4.1 Why telescopes don't track perfectly
9.4.2 Must we make corrections?
9.4.3 Guidescope or off-axis guider?
9.4.4 Autoguiders
9.4.5 A piggyback autoguider
9.5 How well can you do with an altazimuth mount?
9.5.1 The rate of field rotation
9.5.2 Success in altazimuth mode
9.5.3 What field rotation is not
Power and camera control in the field
10.1 Portable electric power
10.1.1 The telescope
10.1.2 The computer and camera
10.1.3 Care of Li-ion batteries
10.1.4 Ground loop problems
10.1.5 Safety
10.2 Camera control
10.2.1 Where to get special camera cables
10.2.2 Tripping the shutter remotely
10.2.3 Controlling a camera by laptop
10.3 Networking everything together
10.4 Operating at very low temperatures
Sensors and sensor performance
11.1 CCD and CMOS sensors
11.2 Sensor specifications
11.2.1 What we don't know
11.2.2 Factors affecting performance
11.2.4 Binning
11.3 Nebulae, red response, and filter modification
11.3.1 DSLR spectral response
11.3.2 Filter modification
11.3.3 Is filter modification necessary?
11.4.3 Imaging with deep red light alone
Overview of image processing
12.1 How to avoid all this work
12.2 Processing from camera raw
12.3 Detailed procedure with MaxDSLR
12.3.1 Screen stretch
12.3.2 Subtracting dark frames
12.3.3 Converting to color (de-Bayerization, demosaicing)
12.3.4 Combining images
12.3.5 Stretching and gamma correction
12.3.6 Saving the result
12.4 Processing from linear TIFFs
12.4.1 Making linear TIFFs
12.4.2 Processing procedure
12.5 Processing from JPEG files or other camera output
Digital imaging principles
13.1 What is a digital image?
13.1.1 Bit depth
13.1.2 Color encoding
13.2 Files and formats
13.2.1 TIFF
13.2.2 JPEG
13.2.3 FITS
13.3 Image size and resizing
13.3.1 Dots per inch
13.3.2 Resampling
13.3.3 The Drizzle algorithm
13.4 Histograms, brightness, and contrast
13.4.1 Histograms
13.4.2 Histogram equalization
13.4.3 Curve shape
13.4.4 Gamma correction
13.5 Sharpening
13.5.1 Edge enhancement
13.5.2 Unsharp masking
13.5.3 Digital development
13.5.4 Spatial frequency and wavelet transforms
13.5.5 Deconvolution
13.6 Color control
13.6.1 Gamut
13.6.2 Color space
13.6.3 Color management
14.1 Combining images
14.1.1 How images are combined
14.1.2 Stacking images in Photoshop
14.1.3 Who moved? Comparing two images
14.2 Calibration frames
14.2.1 Dark-frame subtraction
14.2.2 Bias frames and scaling the dark frame
14.3 Removing gradients and vignetting
14.4 Removing grain and low-level noise
14.5 The extreme brightness range of nebulae
14.5.1 Simple techniques
14.5.2 Layer masking (Lodriguss' method)
14.6 Other Photoshop techniques
14.7 Where to learn more
Astrophotography with non-SLR digital cameras
Webcam and video planetary imaging
B.1 The video astronomy revolution
B.2 Using a webcam or video imager
B.3 Using RegiStax
Digital processing of film images
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DSLR Revolution

DSLR Revolution

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Published by mminozzo

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Published by: mminozzo on Nov 03, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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