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Voltage Sags in Industrial Systems

Voltage Sags in Industrial Systems

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i
IE E ET R A N S A C T IO N S O N IN D U S T R Y A P P L IC A T IO N S ,V O L .2 9 , N O .2 , M A R C W A P R IL1 9 9 3
3 9 1
V o lta g e S a g s in In d u s tria l S y s te m s
M a r kF . M c G ra n a g h a n , M em ber, IE E E , D a v idR . M u e lle r, M em ber, IE E E ,a n d M arekJ . S a m o ty j, M em ber, IE E E
A b s tr a c t- T h is

p a p e r d e s c r ib e s th e c a u s e s o f v o lta g es a g s in in d u s tr ia l p la n ts , th e ir im p a c ts o n e q u ip m e n t o p e r a tio n , a n dp o s- sible solutions. T he definition proposed focuses on system faults

asth e m a jo r c a u se o f v o lta g e s a g s . T h e s e n s itiv ity o f d iffe r e n t
ty p e so f in d u s tr ia l e q u ip m e n t, in c lu d in g a d ju s ta b le sp e e d d r iv e

controls,program m able logic controllers,and m otor contactors, is a n a ly z e d . A v a ila b le m e th o d s o f p o w e r c o n d itio n in g f o r th is sensitive equipm ent are also described.

I .IN T R O D U C T IO N
VOLTAGE SAG
is a m om entary (i.e.,0 .5 -3 0
c y c le s )
A
d e c re a s e in th e rm s v o lta g e m a g n itu d e , u s u a lly c a u s e d
b y
a
rem o te
fault som ewhere on
th e
power system
(F ig .
1 ).V o lta g e s a g s a re th e m o s t im p o rta n t p o w e r q u a lity p ro b -
le m
fa c in g
m any
industrial custom ers. Equipm ent used
in
m odem

in d u s tria l p la n ts (p ro c e s s c o n tro lle rs , p ro g ra m m a b le lo g ic c o n tro lle rs , a d ju s ta b le s p e e d d riv e s , ro b o tic s ) is a c tu a lly b e c o m in g m o re s e n s itiv e to v o lta g e s a g s a s th e c o m p le x ity o f the equipm ent increases. E ven relays and contactors in m otor s ta rte rs c a n b e s e n s itiv e to v o lta g e s a g s , re s u ltin g in s h u td o w n of a process w hen they drop out.

It is im portant to
u n d e rs ta n d
th e
difference between
a n
in te rru p tio n (c o m p le te lo s s o f
v o lta g e ) a n d
a

v o lta g e s a g . In te rru p tio n s o c c u r w h e n a p ro te c tiv e d e v ic e a c tu a lly in te rru p ts th e c irc u it s e rv in g a p a rtic u la r c u s to m e r. T h is w ill n o rm a lly o n ly o c c u r if th e re is a fa u lt o n th a t c irc u it. V o lta g e s a g s o c c u r d u rin g th e p e rio d o f a fa u lt fo r fa u lts o v e r a w id e p a rt o f th e p o w e r s y s te m . F a u lts o n p a ra lle l fe e d e r c irc u its o r o n th e transm ission system w ill cause voltage sags but w ill not result in a c tu a l in te rru p tio n s . T h e re fo re , v o lta g e s a g s a re m u c h m o re fre q u e n t th a n in te rru p tio n s . If e q u ip m e n t is s e n s itiv e to th e s e voltage sags, the frequencyo fp ro b le m s w ill b e m u c h g re a te r th a n if th e e q u ip m e n t w e re o n ly s e n s itiv e to in te rru p tio n s .

T h is p a p e r d e s c rib e s th e v o lta g e s a g c h a ra c te ris tic s a n d th e s e n s itiv ity o f e q u ip m e n t. W ith th is in fo rm a tio n , th e ra n g e o f fa u lt lo c a tio n s o n th e p o w e r s y s te m th a t c a n c a u s e p ro b le m s c a n b e e s tim a te d (a re a o f v u ln e ra b ility ). O p tio n s fo r im p ro v in g equipm ent perform ance in the presence of voltage sags include p o w e r c o n d itio n in g o r e q u ip m e n t d e s ig n m o d ific a tio n s . B o th of these options are described.

1 1 .
CAUSES OF
V O L T A G E
SA G S
V o lta g e s a g s a re ty p ic a lly c a u s e d b y fa u lt c o n d itio n s . M o to r
P a p e r IC P S D 9 1 -5 1 , a p p ro v e d b y th e P o w e r S y s te m s P ro te c tio n C o m m itte e
o f
th e
IE E E
In d u stry
A p p lic a tio n s
S o c ie ty
fo r
p re s e n ta tio n
a t th e

1 9 9 1 Industrial and C om m ercial P ow er S ystem s D epartm ent T echnical C onference, M em phis,TN ,M ay 6 9 . M anuscript released for publication A pril 29, 1992.

M . M cG ranaghan
a n d
D .
M u e lle r
a r e
w ith
E le c tro te k
Concepts, Inc.,
K n o x v ille ,T N 3 7 9 3 2 .
M .S a m o ty j is w ith E le c tric P o w e r R e s e a rc h In s titu te , P a lo A lto , C A 9 4 3 0 3 .
IEEE Log Number 9207100.
2
2 \u2019
i o
>
-1
-0
F ig .1 .
V oltage sag w aveform caused by a rem ote faultcondition (six cycles).
S u b sta tlo n
F ig . 2 .
T y p ic a l d is trib u tio n s y s te m
o n e lin e d ia g ra m
illustrating types of
p ro te c tio n d e v ic e s .

s ta rtin g c a n a ls o re s u lt in u n d e rv o lta g e s , b u t th e s e a re ty p ic a lly lo n g e r in d u ra tio n th a n3 0 c y c le s a n d th e a s s o c ia te d v o lta g e m a g n itu d e s a re n o t a s lo w . M o to r s ta rtin g v o lta g e v a ria tio n s are often referred to as \u201cvoltage flicker,\u201d especially if the m otor s ta rtin g c a n o c c u r fre q u e n tly .

F a u lts re s u ltin g in v o lta g e s a g s c a n o c c u r w ith in th e p la n t o r o n th e u tility s y s te m . T h e v o lta g e s a g c o n d itio n la s ts u n til th e fa u lt is c le a re d b y a p ro te c tiv e d e v ic e . In th e p la n t, th is w ill ty p ic a lly b e

a fuse or a plant feeder breaker. O n the
u tility
system , the fault could be cleared by

a branch fuse o r a s u b s ta tio n b re a k e r. If re c lo s in g is u se d b y th e u tility , th e v o lta g e s a g c o n d itio n c a n o c c u r m u ltip le tim e s .

U tility system
fa u lts c a n o c c u r o n th e d is trib u tio n s y s te m
or on
the transmission system. Fig.2
illustrates a
ty p ic a l
distribution system

c o n fig u ra tio n w ith a n u m b e r o f fe e d e rs supplied from a com m on bus. A fault on Feeder F1 w ill cause a n in te rru p tio n w h ic h w ill a ffe c t th e c u s to m e rs o n th a t fe e d e r. H ow ever, allo fth e c u s to m e rs o n th e th re e p a ra lle l fe e d e rs w ill e x p e rie n c e a v o lta g e s a g w h ile th e fa u lt is a c tu a lly o n th e s y s te m . W ith th e re c lo s in g b re a k e rs a t th e s u b s ta tio n , th e custom ers on parallel feeders can experience as m any as four

0 0 9 3 -9 9 9 4 /9 3 $ 0 3 .0 00
1993 IEEE
I
3 9 8
IE E ET R A N S A C T IO N S
O N
IN D U S T R Y
A P P L IC A T IO N S ,V O L .2 9 , N O .2 ,MARCWAPRIL
1 9 9 3
\R e c lo s e r O p e ra lin q S e q u e n c e b
I
C o n lo c ls C lo s e d
F ig .3 .
T y p ic a lr e c l o s e ro p e ra tin g
s e q u e n c e .
\
I
I
R e c lo s in g In te rv a ls (C o n ta c ts O p e n )
7
2 o o v,
o v
200
V /d iv
v e rtic o l
2
s e c /d iv
h o riz
F ig .4 .
V o lta g es a ga t custom er lo c a tio nw ith o n er e c l o s e ro p e ra tio n .

v o lta g e s a g s in s u c c e s s io n , la s tin g fo r d u ra tio n s ra n g in g fro m a c o u p le o f c y c le s to m o re th a n te n c y c le s (s e e ty p ic a l re c lo s in g s e q u e n c e in F ig .3 ). T h e v o lta g e c h a ra c te ris tic a t th e c u s to m e r lo c a tio n o n a p a ra lle l fe e d e r w ill lo o k s o m e th in g lik e th e p lo t in F ig .4 (o n e re c lo s in g o p e ra tio n ).

Faults on the transm ission system
c a n

affect even m ore custom ers. C ustom ers hundreds of m iles from the fault loca- tio n c a n s till e x p e rie n c e a v o lta g e s a g re s u ltin g in e q u ip m e n t m is o p e ra tio n w h e n th e fa u lti s on the transm ission system .

T he large m ajority of faults on a utility system are single lin e -to -g ro u n d fa u lts (S L G F ). T h re e p h a s e fa u lts a re m o re severe, but m uch

less com m on. SLGF\u2019s often result from w e a th e r c o n d itio n s s u c h a s lig h tn in g , w in d , a n d ic e . C o n ta m - in a tio n o f in s u la to rs , a n im a l c o n ta c t, a n d a c c id e n ts in v o lv in g c o n s tru c tio n o r tra n s p o rta tio n a c tiv itie s a ls o c a u s e fa u lts . A l- th o u g h u tilitie s g o to g re a t le n g th s to p re v e n t fa u lts o n th e s y s te m , th e y c a n n o t b e e lim in a te d c o m p le te ly .

L ig h tn in g is the m ost com m on cause of faults on overhead tra n s m is s io n a n d d is trib u tio n lin e s . L ig h tn in g c a n c a u s e a fa u lt b y

d ire c tly s trik in g a p h a s e c o n d u c to r (d ire c t s trik e ) o r b y s trik in g a g ro u n d e d o b je c t, s u c ha s a shield w ire or tow er (b a c k fla s h ). In e ith e r c a s e , th e v o lta g e d e v e lo p e d a c ro s s th e p h a s e c o n d u c to r in s u la to rs c lo s e to

th e s tro k e lo c a tio n c a n c a u s e a fla s h o v e r w h ic h th e n re s u lts in th e flo w o f fa u lt c u rre n t. U s u a lly , th e s e fa u lts a re te m p o ra ry , w h ic h m e a n s th a t th e y

w ill n o t re in itia te a fte r th e y h a v e b e e n c le a re d a n d th e lin e
is reclosed.
The probability of a
fla s h o v e r d u rin g a lig h tn in g s tro k e
c a n
b e
re d u c e d
b y
a p p ly in g
surge arresters to
d iv e rt th e
lig h tn in g c u rre n t to g ro u n d . T h e p ro b a b ility o f b a c k fla s h e s
c a n
b e
re d u c e d
b y
m in im izin g
fo o tin g
resistances. Som e
utilities are
c o n s id e rin g
th e
a p p lic a tio n
o f

arresters along tra n s m is s io n lin e s to re d u c e th e in c id e n c e of lig h tn in g -in d u c e d faults on transm ission system s. R egardless of the m easures ta k e n , lig h tn in g -in d u c e d fa u lts

c a n n o tb e
e lim in a te d

com - p le te ly . T h e re w ill s tillb e lig h tn in g s tro k e s w ith h ig h c u rre n t m a g n itu d e s a n d

r a te s - o f - r is e
w h ic h
w ill
c a u s e

fla s h o v e rs . T h e re fo re , it is im p o rta n t fo r c u s to m e rs to m a k e s u re th a t c ritic a l e q u ip m e n t s e n s itiv e to

v o lta g e
s a g s
i s
a d e q u a te ly
p ro te c te d .
111.R A N T
V O L T A G ED U R I N GS I N G L E
L IN E -T O -G R O U N D
F A U L T SO N TH EU T IL IT Y
S Y S T E M

S in g le lin e -to -g ro u n d fa u lts (S L G F \u2019s ) o n th e u tility s y s te m are the m ost com m on cause of voltage sagsi na n in d u s tria l p la n t. T h e v o lta g e o n th e fa u lte d p h a s e g o e s to z e ro a t th e fa u lt lo c a tio n . T h e v o lta g e a t th e s u b s ta tio n a n d o n p a ra lle l fe e d e rs w ill d e p e n d o n th e d is ta n c e o f th e fa u lt fro m th e s u b s ta tio n . O n transm ission system s,the faulted phase voltage at a rem ote lo c a tio n d e p e n d s o n th e o v e ra ll n e tw o rk im p e d a n c e s .

T heim p o rta n t q u a n titie s fo r e q u ip m e n t s e n s itiv ity a re th e
v o lta g e s a t th e c u s to m e r b u s . T h e s e v o lta g e s w ill d e p e n d o n th e
transformer connections between the faulted system

a n d th e c u s to m e r b u s . F o r a d is trib u tio n s y s te m fa u lt, th e w o rs t c a s e o c c u rs w h e n th e fa u lt is c lo s e to th e s u b s ta tio n b u s . E ffe c tiv e ly , this is the

sam e as a fault near the custom er transform er prim ary (Fig. 5 ). T h e v o lta g e s o n th e c u s to m e r b u s w ill th e n b e

a function of the custom er transform er connections,a s
in d ic a te d in T a b leI .

T h e re la tio n s h ip s in T a b leI a re v e ry im p o rta n t. O n e m ig h t th in k th a t an S L G F o n th e p rim a ry o f a w y e g ro u n d e d d e lta transform er could

result in
zero voltage across one of the
se c o n d a ry w in d in g s . In s te a d , c irc u la tin g fa u lt c u rre n t in th e
I
M C G R A N A G H A N :V O L T A G E SA G SI N
IN D U S T R IA L
SYSTEM S
3 9 9
C
U tility
C o.
S o u r c e
T r a n s f o r m e r
C o n n e c tio n
J
F ig .5 .
S in g le lin e -to -g r o u n d fa u lt n ea rs u b s ta tio n .
T A B L EI
T R A N S F O R M E RS E C O N D A R Y
V O L T A G E S
W IT HA N
S L G FO N
TH E P R IM A R Y
Phaseto Phase
V a b
V bc
V ca
0 .5 8
1 .0 0
0 .5 8
0 .5 8
1 .0 0
0 .5 8
0.33
0 .8 8
0 .8 8
0 .8 8
0 .8 8
0 .3 3
J a b
v b c
V c a
I
I

d e lta s e c o n d a ry w in d in g s re s u ltsi n a v o lta g e o n e a c h w in d in g . T h e m a g n itu d eo f the low est secondary voltage depends upon th e re la tio n s h ip

w here
X ,
transform er short circuit reactance
X S
source equivalent reactance.
F orin d u s tria l p o w e r d is trib u tio n , th e ra tioa
w ill u s u a lly b e
v e ry
c lo s et ou n ity a n d th e re la tio n s h ip s in
T a b le
I
are for
th is c a s e .
Even w ith anS L G Fon the prim ary of the transform er, the
v o lta g e s a g a t th e c u s to m e rb u s w ill ben olo w e rth a n3 3 %
norm ul v a lu e . T h e s e fa u lts a c c o u n t fo r th e g re a te r m a jo rity o f
fa u lts o n th e p o w e r s y s te m .
4 8 0V o k
lig h ls .s o le n o id s
M o to r-A c m s s U te
u n cC o n b o l
A d ju o ta b lcS p c c d
D rlv c
F ig .6 .
Typical single-phasea n d three-phase loads.
I v . S E N S IT IV IT YO F E Q U I P M E N T
T OV O L T A G E
SA G S
In d u s tria l p la n t p o w e r is o fte n d is trib u te d b y th re e -p h a s e
4 8 0
V
feeders. The loads can be categorized by
ty p e a n d
c o n n e c tio n to th e p o w e r s y s te m
(F ig . 6 ):
M otors, heating elem ents, and other three-phase loads can
b e c o n n e c te d d ire c tly to th e 4 8 0 -V fe e d e rs .

A d ju s ta b le -s p e e d d riv e a n d o th e r p o w e r e le c tro n ic d e - v ic e s th a t u s e th re e -p h a s e p o w e r w ill b e c o n n e c te d d i- re c tly to th e 4 8 0 -V fe e d e rs o r th ro u g ha n isolation trans- fo rm er.

L ig h tin g o fte n u tiliz e s s in g le -p h a s e 2 7 7 -V

c o n n e c tio n s from phase-to-neutral or m ay use 480- or 120-V single- phase connections.

C ontrol devices such as com puters, contactors, and pro-
gram m able
lo g ic c o n tro lle rs u tiliz e 4 8 0 1 1 2 0 -V
s in g le -
p h a se tra n sfo rm e rs fo r 1 2 0 -V c o n tro l.

T h e v o lta g e s e x p e rie n c e d d u rin g a v o lta g e s a g c o n d itio n w ill d e p e n d o n th e e q u ip m e n t c o n n e c tio n . T a b leI s h o w e d th a t th e in d iv id u a l p h a s e v o lta g e s a n d p h a s e -to -p h a s e v o lta g e s a re q u ite d iffe re n t d u rin g an S L G F c o n d itio n o n th e tra n s fo rm e r p rim a ry . S o m e s in g le p h a s e lo a d s w ill b e u n a ffe c te d a n d o th e r s in g le p h a s e lo a d s m a y d ro p o u t, e v e n th o u g h th e ir s e n s itiv itie s to v o lta g e s a g s m a y b e id e n tic a l. V o lta g e u n b a la n c e isa l s o a c o n c e rn fo r m o to r h e a tin g . H o w e v e r, th e d u ra tio n s of th e u n b a la n c e d v o lta g e s d u rin g fa u lt c o n d itio n s a res o short that m o to r h e a tin g is n o t a s ig n ific a n t c o n c e rn .

D ifferen t
c a te g o rie s
o f
e q u ip m e n t
a n d
e v e n
d iffe re n t
b ra n d s of e q u ip m e n t w ith in
a
c a te g o ry (e .g ., tw o

d iffe re n t m o d e ls o f a d ju s ta b le s p e e d d riv e s ) h a v e s ig n ific a n tly d iffe re n t s e n s itiv itie s to v o lta g e s a g s . T h is m a k e s it d iffic u lt to d e v e lo p a s in g le s ta n d a rd th a t d e fin e s th e s e n s itiv ity o f in d u s tria l p ro c e s s e q u ip m e n t.

The closest docum ent to a standard is the C B EM A curve
g iv e n
in
F ig . 7 ,
w h ic h
w as
d e v e lo p e d
b y
th e
C o m p u te r

B usiness M anufacturersA ssociation[3 ].T h is a p p lie s p rim a rily to d a ta p ro c e s s in g e q u ip m e n t. T h e c u rv e s h o w s th a t th e lo a d sensitivity is

v e ry
dependent on
th e
d u ra tio n
o f
th e
s a g .
A llo w a b le sa g s ra n g e fro m
0 %
v o lta g e fo r 1 /2 c y c le to o n ly
8 7 %
v o lta g e fo r3 0 c y c le s .
W h ile th e C B E M A
lim its s u g g e s t a " s ta n d a rd " s e n s itiv ity
to v o lta g e s a g s , a c tu a l p la n t e q u ip m e n t h a s a v a rie ty o f o p -

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