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Power-Factor Correction in Bridge and Voltage-doubler Rectifier Circuits With Inductors and Capacitors

Power-Factor Correction in Bridge and Voltage-doubler Rectifier Circuits With Inductors and Capacitors

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P o w e r -F a c to r C o r r e c tio n inB r id g ea n d V o lta g e -D o u b le r R e c tifie r C ir c u its w ith
In d u c to r sa n dC a p a c ito r s
R ichard Red1
L aszloB a lo g h
E L F I S .A .
D errey-la-C abuche
CH-1756O nnens (F R )
S w itz e rla n d
A b stm d-
T o im prove the power factor andt o com plyw ith
line-harmonics
r e g u la tio n s ,
a

p o w e r -fa c to r -c o r r e c tio n /liie - harm onics-reduction circuit m ustb e addedt oth e cepadtively fllte r e d b rid g eo r v o lta g e d o u b le r r e d i r k . P a e s iwm lu tio n s( i i .

c ir r u itsu s in go n ly in d u c to r s a n dc a p a d to rs )a r e * p ie ,
reliable,
a n d
generaten oE M I .
I n
th isp a p e rw ed iscu ss s in g le - p h a s e
re c tifie r d r c u itse m p lo y in ga n a d d itio n a l in d u d o r a n d o n e o r
m ore additionalc a p a d to m for pow er-factor correction.
1 .IN T R O D U C T IO N
T oim p ro v e th e p o w e r fa c to r a n d
to
c o m p ly
w ith

v a rio u s n a tio n a l a n d in te rn a tio n a l lin e -h a rm o n ic s re g u la tio n s in lin e - o p e ra te d e le c tro n ic e q u ip m e n t,a n activeo r passive power-

fa c to r-c o m tio n /lin e -h a rm o n ic s -re d u c tio n
c irc u it
m ust
b e
a d d e dt o
th ec a p a c itiv e ly filte re d b rid g eo r v o lta g e -d o u b le r
front-end rectifier.

A lth o u g hi ti ss tra ig h tfo rw a rdt o o b ta in n e g lig ib le d is to rtio n(i.e . le s sth a n 5% ) a n dh i g h p o w e r fa c to r (m o re

th a n
99% ) w ith
a c tiv e
c irc u its
o p e ra tin g
a t
h ig h
fre q u e n c y
(a b o v e
2 0
kHz),
th e
a d d itio n a l
c irc u itry
c a n
s ig n ific a n tly
re d u c e
th e
re lia b ility
a n d
in c re a s e
th e
c o m p le x ity ,
E M I,
a n d
C o st
o f
th e
e q u ip m e n t.
P a s s iv e
s o lu tio n s
(c irc u its
w ith o u t
c o n tro lle d
sw itches)
o ffe r
a n

a ttra c tiv e tra d e -o ff b e tw e e nc o s t and perform ance: they are s im p le , re lia b le , ro b u s t, g e n e ra te n oE M I,a n ds t i l l p ro v id e c o m p lia n c e w ith

th e n o m s .
I n
th is p a p e r w e(1 )re v ie w ,
e v a lu a te
a n d
com pare
th o s e
b rid g e
a n d

v o lta g e -d o u b le r re c tifie r c o n fig u ra tio n s th a tu sea s in g le in d u c to r a n d a s in g le c a p a c ito r

fo r
p o w e r-fa c to r
c o rre c tio n ,
(2 )
p ro p o s e
im p ro v e m e n ts
to
som e
o f
th e
review ed
c irc u its , a n d
(3 )
present design considerations and experim ental results.
T he
im p ro v e m e n ts a re a c h ie v e d b y s p littin g c a p a c ito rs , a d d in g o n e
o rm o re d io d e s , o r u s in g ta p p e do r d u a l-w in d in g in d u c to rs .
A llc irc u its re p o rte d in th is p a p e r h a v e b e e n s im u la te d ; fo u r
C ircu its w e rea ls ob u ilt a n d te s te d .
U n itro d e In te g ra te d C irc u its
7C o n tin e n ta l B o u le v a rd
M errim ack,N H0 3 0 5 4 - 0 3 9 9
U SA .
0 -7 8 0 3 -2 4 8 2 -X B 5$ 4 . 0 00
1 9 9 5 IE E E
4 6 6
2 .
B R ID G E R E C T IF IE R S W IT HU :POW ER-
F A C T O R C O R R E C T IO N
A .T o p o lo g ie s
C o st a n ds iz e c o n s id e ra tio n s re q u ire th a to n lyo n e in d u c to r b e
a d d e dt oth ere d ifie r fo r p o w e r-fa c to r c o rre c tio n .
Ina b rid g e

rectifier th ere a re tw olo g ic a lp a s itio n sf o r th a t in d u c to r,(1 ) ins e rie s w ith th e lin e(i.e . a t th ea c s id e )o r(2 )i ns e r i e s w ith the load (i.e. atth ed cs i d e ) .

B y p la c in g th e in d u c to r a t th e a c s id e , th e d is to rtio n in th elin e currentc a nb e reduced by in c re a s in g

th e
in d u c ta n c e ,
b u t
th e
o u tp u t
v o lta g e ,
o u tp u t
pow era n dp o w e rfa c to r w illb ea l s o re d u c e d .
B y p la c in gth e
in d u c to r a t th e d c s id e , th e m a x im u m
o u tp u t p o w e r w illb e
in d e p e n d e n tf r o mt h e in d u c ta n c e b u tth e d is to rtio n c a n n o tb e
re d u c e d b e lo w4 8 . 3 % .
Asw e s h a lls e e , o n eo r tw o a d d itio n a l
c a p a c ito rs h e lp
re d u c in g
th e
d is to rtio n
a n d
in c re a s in gth e
p o w e r fa c to r in b o thc a s e s .
As
F ig .1shows, there
aren in e
p o s s ib le
p o s itio n s for an

a d d itio n a l c a p a c ito r in a b rid g e re c tifie r h a v in g a n in d u c to r a t the ac s id e ,a s s u m in g w e o m it th e p a ra lle l c o n n e c tio no fth e a d d itio n a lc a p a c ito r w ith th e s to ra g e c a p a c ito r a n d th es e r i e s c o n n e c tio n s w ith th elin e ,lo a d ,o r re c tifie r d io d e s ,

+r
1
1
A
I
-
F ig .1 . P o ssib lec a p a c ito rp o s itio n si na b r id g e r e c tifie r w ith th ein d u c to ra t
th eI C
s id e .
( 4
F ig .2 . B rid g e re c tifie rswithL C
p o w e r-fa c to r c o rre c tio n ; in d u c to r is
a t th e ac side.
F ig .4 . B rid g e re c tifie rs w ithL c p o w e r-fa c to r c o rre c tio n ; in d u c to r is
at the dc side
Fromth a wn in e p a s itio n s ,p o s itio n s2and 9 an da l s o5 ,6 , 7 ,
a n d8aree q u iv a le n t.
This m eansthat there are five different
T a b leI 1g iv e s th e fo llo w in g re s u lts o f th e s im u la tio n : p o w e r
fa c to r, to ta l h a rm o n ic d is to rtio n o fth elin e c u rre n t, a n d in p u t
c irc u it c o n fig u ra tio n s (F ig .2 ).
pow er.
F ig ,3show s th e n in e p o s itio n s fo r a d d in g a c a p a c ito rt o th e
bridge rectifier w itha n indudor at the dc side.
F ro m

th o s e n in e p o s itio n s , p o s itio n s 5 a n d6a n da l s o3 ,4 , 8,a n d 9 are e q u iv a le n t,

y ie ld in g
fiv e
d iffe re n t
c irc u it
c o n fig u ra tio n s
(F ig . 4 )
T A B L E1 1 .
S IM U L A T IO NR E S U L T SO FBRIDGE R E C T IF IE R S :
P O W E R F A C T O R ,TO TA L H A R M O N IC D IS T O R T IO N ,IN P U T
PO W ER
I
I
I
-
Fig.3 .P o s s ib le c a p a c ito r p o s itio n s in a b rid g e re c tifie r w ith th e
in d u c to r a t th e d c s id e .
C ir c u it
P F [% ]
"I3 D [% ]
P h [w l
2a
8 7 .1
5 3 .2
1 5 8
2 b
9 4 .8
3 2 .9
1 7 0
2 c
7 4 .4
4 5 .4
2 1 3
2 d
9 1 .7
3 5 .3 '
1 5 3
2 e
9 8 .1
18.62
230
4 a 3
8 7 .1
5 3 .2
1 5 8
B .S im u la tio n R e s u lts
4 b
8 6 .7
5 5 .6 4
17 8
T he ten circuits show ni n Figs. 2 and4 w ere sim ulated
w ith
th e s a m e c o m p o n e n t v a lu e s a n d w ith a lin e v o lta g e o f2 3 0
V rm s.
L
a n d
C
w ere
s e le c te d
to
re so n a te
a t th e
th ird
h a rm o n ico fth e5 0 -H z lin e , i.e .a t 1 5 0H z . T a b leI g iv e s th e
com ponent values.
TABLEI .
C O M P O N E N TV A L U E SU SEDI N T H E S IM U L A T IO N
C O M P O N E N T
V A L U E
S to ra g e c a p a c ito r
1 0 0uF
C a p a c ito r
7 .3u F
In d u c to r
1 5 0m H
Load resistor
405 ohm s
4c
8 4 .8
5 4 .6
2 0 6
4 d
8 0 .6
5 6 .6
1 8 9
4 e
8 3 .4
6 4 .6 '
1 8 5
'1 7 .7 %
d c c o m p o n e n t a n d1 6 .5 % e v e n h a rm o n ic d is to rtio n
9 .1 %d c c o m p o n e n t a n d8 .8 % e v e n h a rm o n ic d is to rtio n
'W irb
th e s e le c te d c o m p o n e n t v a lu e sth e s a m e b e h a v io ra s c irc u it2 a
'2 6 .7 %
dc com ponentand4 7 .1 %
e v e n h a rm o n ic d is to rtio n
'4 3 .6 %
dc com ponentand6 0 .4 %
e v e n h a rm o n ic d is to rtio n
Fig.5 show s the linecurrent w aveform s fo r a ll ten circuits.
4 6 7
F ig.5 . L ine-current w aveform s of the circuits in F igs. 2 and4 .
S c a le s :
0 .5N d iv .,4m sld iv .
C . S p littin g C a p a c ito r s
T he circuits 2d,2 e , 4b, and4 e are asym m etrical struaures,
a n d g e n e ra te d c a n d e v e n -h a rm o n ic c o m p o n e n ts in th e lin e
c u rre n t.
? h e
circuit asym m etries can
b e
e lim in a te d b y
s p littin g th ew aveshapingc a p a c i t o ri n tw o capacitors ofe q u a l
v a lu e
a n d
p la c in g
th e m
in
th e
c irc u its s y m m e tric a lly , a s
sh o w ni n F ig . 6 .
F ig.6 . Sym m etrical(split-capacitor) versionso f circuits 2d,2 e , 4b, and 4e.
T a b le
I11s h o w s th e
results of
s im u la tio n sfo r th e
s p lit-
c a p a c ito r c o n fig u ra tio n s .
TABLE1 1 1 .
SIMULATIONR E S U L T S O FB R I D G ER E C T I F I E R S W ITH S P L IT
C A P A C IT O R S :PO W ERF A C T O R ,T O T A L H A R M O N ICD I S T O R T I O N ,
INPUTPO W ER
C ir c u it
P F [% ]
" E D [% ]
p tm
2 d -s
9 2 .7
3 2 .3
1 5 2
2 e -s
9 8 .3
1 6 .9
2 31
4 b -s
% .l
2 8 .4
18 9
4 e -S
8 7 .9
46.7
15 4
T h e s im u la tio n s c o n firm
th a t
th e
d c
a n d
e v e n -h a rm o n ic
c o m p o n e n ts a r e c o m p le te ly e lim in a te d ; c o rre s p o n d in g ly th e
pow er factorh a s in c re a s e d a n d th e to ta l h a rm o n ic d is to rtio n
h a sd e c r e a s e d .
F ig . 7 s h o w s th e lin e -c u rre n t w a v e fo rm s of
th e s p lit-c a p a c ito r c irc u its .
Fig. 7. Line-current w aveform s of the splittapacitor circuitsi n Fig6 .
Scales:0 .5 N d iv .,4 m s/div.
4 6 8

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