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perumal2004_RAIDTutorial (1)

perumal2004_RAIDTutorial (1)

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05/09/2014

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A Tutorial on RAID Storage Systems
Sameshan Perumal and Pieter Kritzinger
CS04-05-00
May 6, 2004

Data Network Architectures Group
Department of Computer Science
University of Cape Town
Private Bag, RONDEBOSCH
7701 South Africa

e-mail: dna@cs.uct.ac.za
Abstract

RAIDstorage systems have been in use since the early 1990\u2019s. Recently, however, as the demand for huge amounts of on-line storage has increased, RAID has once again come into focus. This report reviews the history of RAID, as well as where and how RAID systems \ufb01t in the storage hierarchy of an Enterprize Computing System (EIS). We describe the known RAID con\ufb01gurations and the advantages and disadvantages of each. Since the focus of our research is on the performance of RAID systems we devote a section to the various factors which a\ufb00ect RAID performance. Modelling RAID systems for their performance analysis is the topic of the next section and we report on the issues as well as brie\ufb02y describe one simulator, RAIDframe, which has been developed. We conclude with section which describes the current open research questions in the area.

1 Introduction

The concept of Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive Disks (RAID) was introduced about two decades ago and a RAID taxonomy was \ufb01rst established by Patterson [Patterson et al. 1988] in 1988. The taxonomy outlines the theory of RAID systems and provides several schemes to utilize the capa- bilities in varying ways. These RAID levels describe data placement and redundancy strategies for di\ufb00erent applications, as well as the bene\ufb01ts of each level. RAID overcomes the capacity limita- tions of commodity disks by treating an array of such low-capacity disks as one large Single Large Expensive Disk (SLED). Such arrays o\ufb00er \ufb02exibility over SLED, in that capacity can be increased incrementally, and as desired, by simply adding more disks to the array.

Commodity storage disks currently o\ufb00er a number of bene\ufb01ts:
1. They are inexpensive, with approximately the same or lower cost per byte than SLED\u2019s;
2. Individual disks has a Mean Time To Failure (MTTF) rate comparable to most SLED\u2019s;
3. They require far less power;
4. They conform to a uniform access standard, typically SCSI or IDE, and usually

5. they have built in controller logic which performs both error detection and correction functions.

Since each individual disk in a RAID system consumes little power, and the cost of replacement of a single disk is small compared to the overall cost, RAID systems have low maintenance costs. Finally, given that each disk in the array, depending on the logical arrangement, can perform transfers independently of the others the potential for faster transfers through the exploitation of parallelism exists.

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