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CHEMISTRY (Part i)

CHEMISTRY (Part i)

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Published by Nisha Dolas

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Published by: Nisha Dolas on Nov 03, 2011
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05/18/2013

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IAS OUR DREAM
Authored by
: NISHA DOLAS
CHEMISTRY
TOPICS
1.Chemical Reactions and Equations2. Acids and Base3. Metal and Non-Metals4. Carbon and its compound5. Periodic Classification of Elements
 
1
   C   H   E   M   I   S   T   R   Y   |   [   P   i  c   k   t   h  e   d  a   t  e   ]
C
HEMICAL
R
EACTIONS AND
E
QUATIONS
The following observations help us to determine whethera chemical reaction hastaken place – 
change in state
change in colour 
evolution of a gas
change in temperature.
Reactants & Product
Magnesium + Oxygen

Magnesium oxide(Reactants) (Product)
The substances that undergo chemical change in the reaction, magnesium andoxygen, are the reactants. The new substance, magnesium oxide, formedduring the reaction, is the product
Skeletal Chemical Equation
When the mass is not the same on both sides of the equation. Such a chemicalequation is a skeletal chemical equation for a reaction.
Law of conservation of mass
The mass can neither be created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction.The total mass of the elements present in the products of a chemical reaction hastobe equal to the total mass of the elements present in the reactants.Actually chemical reaction involves the breaking and making bonds betweenatoms to produce new substances. 
TYPES OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS
Combination Reaction: 
CaO(s) + H
2
O (l)

Ca (OH)
2
(aq)
(Quick lime) (Slaked lime)
In this reaction, calcium oxide and water combine to form a singleproduct,calcium hydroxide.
Such a reaction in which a single product is formed fromtwo or more reactants is known as a COMBINATION REACTION
.
EXOTHERMIC CHEMICAL REACTION
.
 
2
   C   H   E   M   I   S   T   R   Y   |   [   P   i  c   k   t   h  e   d  a   t  e   ]
Reaction in which heat is released along with the formation of products is called
Exothermic Chemical Reaction
.
RESPIRATION-AN EXOTHERMIC ENERGY
We need energy to stay alive. We get this energy from the food we eat. Duringdigestion, food is broken down into simpler substances.For example, rice, potatoes and bread contain carbohydrates. These carbohydratesare broken down to form glucose. This glucose combines with oxygen in the cellsof our body and provides energy. The special name of this reaction is respiration.C
6
H
12
O
6
(aq) + 6O
2
(aq)
6CO
2
(aq) + 6H
2
O (l) + energy(Glucose)
Decomposition Reaction 
A single reactant breaks down to give simpler products. This is a decompositionreaction.
(g)SO+(g)SO+(s)OFe (s)2FeSO
3232 Heat4
    
(Ferrous sulphate) (Ferric oxide)Ferrous sulphate crystals (FeSO
4
, 7H
2
O) lose water when heated and the colour of the crystals changes. It then decomposes to ferric oxide (Fe
2
O
3
), sulphur dioxide(SO
2
) and sulphur trioxide (SO
3
). Ferric oxide is a solid,while SO
2
and SO
3
aregases
.
Thermal Decomposition.When a decomposition reaction is carried out by heating, it is called thermaldecomposition.Endothermic reaction
White silver chloride turns grey in sunlight. This is due to the decomposition of silver chloride into silver and chlorine by light.
(g)Cl+Ag(s)2 2AgCl(s)
2Sunlight
      
Silver bromide also behaves in the same way.
(g)Br +2Ag(s) 2AgBr(s)
2Sunlight
      

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