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03/18/2014

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FE No1 \u2013 Gi\ue047i thi\ue03cu v\ue038 h\ue03c th\ue042ng m\u00e1y t\u00ednh
\ue007\ue031C L\ue031C
Ph\ue02bn 1
H\ue03b TH\ue041NG M\u00c1Y T\u00cdNH
1 L\u00fd thuy\ue037t c\ue025 b\ue029n v\ue038 th\u00f4ng tin...................................................................... 1
Gi\ue04fi thi\ue044u........................................................................................................ 2
1.1
Bi\ue042u di\ue043n d\ue05b li\ue044u................................................................................ 2
1.1.1
Chuy\ue01dn\ue00b\ue024i s\ue023.................................................................................................... 2
1.1.2
Bi\ue01du di\ue01en s\ue023......................................................................................................11
1.1.3
Ph\u00e9p to\u00e1n v\u00e0\ue00b \ue026 ch\u00ednh x\u00e1c............................................................................... 22
1.1.4
Bi\ue01du di\ue01en c\u00e1c gi\u00e1 tr\ue020 phi s\ue023.............................................................................. 23
1.2
Th\u00f4ng tin v\u00e0 l\u00f4gic............................................................................. 26
1.2.1
Logic m\ue01fnh\ue00b \ue01c................................................................................................. 26
1.2.2
Ph\u00e9p to\u00e1n logic............................................................................................... 26
B\u00e0i t\ue017p.......................................................................................................................... 29
2 Ph\ue02bn c\ue051ng...................................................................................................32
Gi\ue04fi thi\ue044u...................................................................................................... 33
2.1
Ph\ue034n t\ue05a th\u00f4ng tin.............................................................................. 34
2.1.1
\ue007\ue011ch t\u00edch h\ue029p................................................................................................. 34
2.1.2
\ue001\ue026nh\ue027 b\u00e1n d\ue016n............................................................................................... 34
2.2
Ki\ue040n tr\u00fac b\ue04e x\ue05a l\u00fd............................................................................. 36
2.2.1
Ki\ue01bn tr\u00fac v\u00e0 nguy\u00ean t\ue018c ho\ue011t\ue00b \ue026ng c\ue02ba b\ue026 x\ue02d l\u00fd............................................... 36
2.2.2
N\u00e2ng cao t\ue023c\ue00b\ue026 x\ue02d l\u00fd trong b\ue026 x\ue02d l\u00fd............................................................... 47
2.2.3
\ue002\ue00fc h\ue01bv\ue017n h\u00e0nh.............................................................................................. 50
2.2.4
\ue00da b\ue026x\ue02dl \u00ed...................................................................................................... 5 4
2.2.5
Hi\ue01fu n\ue00cng c\ue02ba b\ue026 x\ue02d l\u00fd.................................................................................... 55
2.3
Ki\ue040n tr\u00fac c\ue056a b\ue04e nh\ue04f........................................................................ 57
2.3.1
Nh\ue02eng ki\ue01du b\ue026 nh\ue027.......................................................................................... 57
2.3.2
Dung l\ue010\ue029ng v\u00e0 hi\ue01fu n\ue00cng b\ue026 nh\ue027..................................................................... 58
2.3.3
\ue002\ue013u h\u00ecnh b\ue026nh\ue027..............................................................................................59
2.4
Thi\ue040t b\ue046 l\ue02fu gi\ue05b ph\ue055.......................................................................... 60
2.4.1
Ki\ue01du v\u00e0\ue00b\ue019c tr\ue010ng c\ue02ba thi\ue01bt b\ue020 l\ue010u gi\ue02e ph\ue02a....................................................... 60
2.4.2
C\u00e1c ki\ue01du RAID v\u00e0\ue00b \ue019c t\u00ednh c\ue02ba ch\u00fang............................................................. 70
2.5
\ue007\ue033u tr\u00fac v\u00e0o/ra v\u00e0 c\u00e1c thi\ue040tb\ue046...........................................................72
2.5.1
Ph\ue010\ue00fng ph\u00e1p\ue00b \ue00a \ue01cu khi\ue01dn v\u00e0o/ra....................................................................... 72
2.5.2
Giao di\ue01fn v\u00e0o/ra............................................................................................. 74
2.5.3
C\u00e1c lo\ue011i thi\ue01bt b\ue020 v\u00e0o/ra v\u00e0\ue00b \ue019c tr\ue010ng c\ue02ba ch\u00fang.............................................. 77
2.6
C\u00e1c lo\ue031i m\u00e1y t\u00ednh.............................................................................. 88
B\u00e0i t\ue017p.......................................................................................................................... 92
3 Ph\ue02bn m\ue038m c\ue025 b\ue029n....................................................................................... 96
Gi\ue04fi thi\ue044u...................................................................................................... 97
3.1
\ue00a\ue044\ue000\ue027\ue01a\ue041u h\u00e0nh.................................................................................... 97
3.1.1
\ue002\ue013u h\u00ecnh v\u00e0 ch\ue02ccn\ue00cng c\ue02bah\ue01f\ue000\ue00b\ue00a\ue01cu h\u00e0nh......................................................... 97
3.1.2
Qu\ue012n l\u00fd vi\ue01fc...................................................................................................100
FE No 1 \u2013 Gi\ue02ei thi\ue025u v\ue021 H\ue025 th\ue02ang m\u00e1y t\u00ednh
3.1.3
Qu\ue012n l\u00fd ti\ue01bn tr\u00ecnh...........................................................................................102
3.1.4
Qu\ue012n l\u00fd b\ue026 nh\ue027 ch\u00ednh.....................................................................................106
3.1.5
Qu\ue012n l\u00fd b\ue026 nh\ue027\ue000\ue012o..........................................................................................108
3.1.6
Qu\ue012n l\u00fd t\ue01fp..................................................................................................... 110
3.1.7
Qu\ue012n l\u00ed an ninh.............................................................................................. 113
3.1.8
Qu\ue012n l\u00fd h\ue022ng h\u00f3c........................................................................................... 114
3.1.9
\ue001\ue026 gi\u00e1m s\u00e1t.................................................................................................... 114
3.2
C\u00e1c ki\ue042u h\ue044\ue000\ue027\ue01a\ue041u h\u00e0nh..................................................................... 115
3.2.1
\ue004\ue01f\ue000\ue00b\ue00a\ue01cu h\u00e0nh v\ue011n n\ue00cng................................................................................... 115
3.2.2
\ue004\ue01f\ue000\ue00b\ue00a\ue01cu h\u00e0nh m\ue011ng (NOS).............................................................................. 118
3.3
Ph\ue034n m\ue041m gi\ue05ba............................................................................... 120
3.3.1
DBMS............................................................................................................120
3.3.2
\ue004\ue01ft h\ue023ng qu\ue012n l\u00fd truy\ue01cn th\u00f4ng........................................................................120
3.3.3
C\u00f4ng c\ue02a h\ue025 tr\ue029 ph\u00e1t tri\ue01dn ph\ue014n m\ue01cm..............................................................121
3.3.4
C\u00f4ng c\ue02a qu\ue012n l\u00fd v\ue017n h\u00e0nh..............................................................................121
3.3.5
ORB...............................................................................................................121
B\u00e0i t\ue017p.........................................................................................................................122
4\ue005\ue03c th\ue042ng\ue01ea ph\ue027\ue025ng ti\ue03cn......................................................................... 126
Gi\ue04fi thi\ue044u.................................................................................................... 127
4.1
\ue029a ph\ue02f\ue02dng ti\ue044n l\u00e0 g\u00ec?..................................................................... 127
4.1.1
\ue003\ue020ch v\ue02a\ue000\ue00ba ph\ue010\ue00fng ti\ue01fn..................................................................................127
4.1.2
\ue008\ue01cn th\ue02fc hi\ue01fnh\ue01ft h\ue023ng \ue00ba ph\ue010\ue00fng ti\ue01fn...........................................................129
4.1.3
C\u00f4ng ngh\ue01f\ue000\ue00ba ph\ue010\ue00fng ti\ue01fn..............................................................................133
4.2
\ue057ng d\ue055ng \ue027a ph\ue02f\ue02dng ti\ue044n............................................................... 134
4.2.1
Nh\ue017n d\ue011ng ti\ue01bng n\u00f3i v\u00e0 h\u00ecnh\ue012nh....................................................................134
4.2.2
\ue009\ue024ng h\ue029p ti\ue01bng n\u00f3i v\u00e0 h\u00ecnh \ue012nh......................................................................134
4.3
\ue00a\ue044t h\ue04ang \ue058ng d\ue055ng \ue027a ph\ue02f\ue02dng ti\ue044n................................................. 136
B\u00e0i t\ue017p.........................................................................................................................137
5\ue002\ue02au h\u00ecnh h\ue03c th\ue042ng.................................................................................... 138
5.1
Ph\u00e2n lo\ue031i h\ue044 th\ue04ang v\u00e0 c\ue033u h\u00ecnh h\ue044 th\ue04ang......................................... 139
5.1.1
Ph\u00e2n lo\ue011i h\ue01f th\ue023ng.........................................................................................139
5.1.2
\ue004\ue01ft h\ue023ng kh\u00e1ch / ph\ue02ac v\ue02a...............................................................................139
5.1.3
\ue002\ue013u h\u00ecnh h\ue01fth\ue023ng..........................................................................................142
5.2
C\u00e1c ph\ue02f\ue02dng th\ue058c h\ue044 th\ue04ang.............................................................. 146
5.2.1
Ph\ue010\ue00fng th\ue02cc x\ue02d l\u00fd h\ue01f th\ue023ng............................................................................146
5.2.2
Ph\ue010\ue00fng th\ue02cc s\ue02d d\ue02ang h\ue01f th\ue023ng.......................................................................148
5.2.3
Ph\ue010\ue00fng th\ue02cc\ue00b \ue00a\ue01cu h\u00e0nh h\ue01f th\ue023ng....................................................................152
5.2.4
T\u00ednh to\u00e1n tr\u00ean Web.........................................................................................153
5.3
Hi\ue044u n\ue028ng h\ue044 th\ue04ang......................................................................... 154
5.3.1
T\u00ednh to\u00e1n hi\ue01fu n\ue00cng........................................................................................154
5.3.2
Thi\ue01bt k\ue01b hi\ue01fu n\ue00cng..........................................................................................156
5.3.3
\ue00d\u00e1nh gi\u00e1 hi\ue01fu n\ue00cng........................................................................................156
5.4
\ue029\ue04e tin c\ue037y c\ue056a h\ue044t h\ue04ang.................................................................. 158
5.4.1
T\u00ednh\ue00b \ue026 tin c\ue017y................................................................................................158
5.4.2
Ti\ue01bt k\ue01b t\u00ednh tin c\ue017y..........................................................................................161
5.4.3
\ue007\ue02ac ti\u00eau v\u00e0 \ue00b\u00e1nh gi\u00e1 v\ue01c\ue000\ue00b\ue026 tin c\ue017y..................................................................161
5.4.4
Chi ph\u00ed t\u00e0i ch\u00ednh.............................................................................................162
FE No1 \u2013 Gi\ue047i thi\ue03cu v\ue038 h\ue03c th\ue042ng m\u00e1y t\u00ednh
B\u00e0i t\ue017p.........................................................................................................................163
Tr\ue032 l\ue050i b\u00e0i t\ue037p.............................................................................................. 167

Tr\ue012 l\ue028i cho Quy\ue01dn 1, Ph\ue014n 1, Ch\ue010\ue00fng 1 (L\u00fd thuy\ue01bt th\u00f4ng tin c\ue00f b\ue012n)...........................167 Tr\ue012 l\ue028i cho Quy\ue01dn 1 Ph\ue014n 1 Ch\ue010\ue00fng 2 (Ph\ue014n c\ue02cng).....................................................175 Tr\ue012 l\ue028i Quy\ue01dn 1 Ph\ue014n 1 Ch\ue010\ue00fng 3 (Ph\ue014n m\ue01cm c\ue00f b\ue012n)................................................181 Tr\ue012 l\ue028i b\u00e0i t\ue017p cho Quy\ue01dn 1 Ph\ue014n 1 Ch\ue010\ue00fng 4 (H\ue01f th\ue023ng\ue00ba ph\ue010\ue00fng ti\ue01fn)...................189 Tr\ue012 l\ue028i b\u00e0i t\ue017p Quy\ue01dn 1 Ph\ue014n 1 Ch\ue010\ue00fng 5 (C\ue013u h\u00ecnh h\ue01f th\ue023ng)....................................192

Ph\ue02bn 2
X\ue053 L\u00dd TH\u00d4NG TIN V\u00c0 AN NINH
1\ue006\ue037 to\u00e1n...................................................................................................... 201
1.1
Ho\ue031t\ue027 \ue04eng nghi\ue044p v\ue055 v\u00e0 th\u00f4ng tin k\ue040 to\u00e1n..................................... 202
1.1.1
\ue008\ue00cm t\u00e0i ch\u00ednh v\u00e0 th\u00f4ng tin k\ue01bt o\u00e1 n................................................................. 20 2
1.1.2
\ue002\ue013u tr\u00fac t\u00e0i kho\ue012n..........................................................................................205
1.2
C\u00e1ch\ue027 \ue048c b\ue032n k\u00ea t\u00e0i ch\u00ednh............................................................... 210
1.2.1
C\u00e1ch\ue00b\ue021c t\ue028 quy\ue01bt to\u00e1n...................................................................................210
1.2.2
C\u00e1ch\ue00b\ue021c b\ue012n k\u00ea l\ue029i t\ue02cc..................................................................................217
1.3
\ue00b\ue040 to\u00e1n t\u00e0i ch\u00ednh v\u00e0 k\ue040 to\u00e1n qu\ue032n l\u00ed................................................ 224
1.3.1
\ue005\ue01b to\u00e1n t\u00e0i ch\u00ednh............................................................................................224
1.3.2
\ue005\ue01b to\u00e1n qu\ue012n l\u00fd..............................................................................................225
1.3.3
\ue002\ue013u h\u00ecnh h\ue01f th\u00f4ng tin k\ue01bto \u00e1n......................................................................... 23 2
1.3.4
Chu\ue015n qu\ue023c t\ue01b................................................................................................233
B\u00e0i t\ue017p.........................................................................................................................241
2\ue007\ue021nh v\ue056c\ue051ng d\ue04eng c\ue04fa h\ue03c th\ue042ng m\u00e1y t\u00ednh............................................. 246
2.1
\ue057ng d\ue055ng k\ue02an gh\ue044...........................................................................247
2.1.1
Ki\ue01dm so\u00e1t t\ue02f\ue000\ue00b\ue026ng s\ue012n xu\ue013t.............................................................................247
2.1.2
CAD/CAM/CAE.............................................................................................248
2.1.3
\ue004\ue01ft h\ue023ng FA v\u00e0 CIM.......................................................................................249
2.2
\ue057ng d\ue055ng kinh doanh..................................................................... 251
2.2.1
\ue004\ue01fh\ue025t r\ue029n gh i\ue01fpv\ue02at\ue024ng h\u00e0nh dinh................................................................251
2.2.2
\ue004\ue01ft h\ue023ng h\ue025t r\ue029 kinh doanh b\u00e1n l\ue01a.................................................................252
2.2.3
\ue004\ue01ft h\ue023ng t\u00e0i ch\u00ednh..........................................................................................255
2.2.4
Trao\ue00b\ue024i d\ue02e li\ue01fu giao t\u00e1c li\u00ean doanh nghi\ue01fp....................................................257
B\u00e0i t\ue017p.........................................................................................................................260
3 An ninh.....................................................................................................262
3.1
An ninh th\u00f4ng tin............................................................................ 263
3.1.1
An ninh th\u00f4ng tin l\u00e0 g\u00ec?..................................................................................263
3.1.2
An ninh logic..................................................................................................265
3.2
Ph\u00e2n t\u00edch r\ue056i ro............................................................................... 267
3.2.1
Qu\ue012n l\u00ed r\ue02bi ro.................................................................................................267
3.2.2
Ki\ue01du,\ue010 \ue027c l\ue010\ue029ng v\u00e0 ph\u00e2n t\u00edch r\ue02bi ro................................................................267
3.2.3
Ph\ue010\ue00fng ph\u00e1p x\ue02d l\u00ed r\ue02bi ro................................................................................271
3.2.4
Bi\ue01fn ph\u00e1p an ninh..........................................................................................271
3.2.5
\ue001\ue012o v\ue01fd\ue02eli\ue01fu................................................................................................271
3.2.6
\ue001\ue012o v\ue01f t\u00ednh ri\u00eang t\ue010........................................................................................272

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