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Published by: api-3826753 on Oct 18, 2008
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03/18/2014

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\ue00b\ue055cL\ue055c
1 C\ue032u tr\u00fac d\ue05a li\ue043u...............................................................................................................1
1.1 C\ue032u tr\u00fac d\ue05a li\ue043u l\u00e0 g\u00ec?...............................................................................................2

1.2 C\ue032u tr\u00fac d\ue05a li\ue043u c\ue02b s\ue052...............................................................................................3 1.2.1 Ki\ue041u d\ue05a li\ue043u c\ue02b s\ue052..............................................................................................3 1.2.2 Ki\ue041u c\u00f3 c\ue032u tr\u00fac.................................................................................................4 1.2.3 Ki\ue041u d\ue05a li\ue043u tr\ue058u t\ue02d\ue054ng......................................................................................7

1.3 C\ue032u tr\u00fac d\ue05a li\ue043u h\ue02d\ue04fng v\ue032n\ue024 \ue040...................................................................................8 1.3.1 C\ue032u tr\u00fac danh s\u00e1ch.............................................................................................8 1.3.2 Ng\ue025n x\ue03fp..........................................................................................................10 1.3.3 H\u00e0ng\ue024 \ue054i..........................................................................................................11 1.3.4 C\ue032u tr\u00fac c\u00e2y.....................................................................................................12 1.3.5 B\ue025m.................................................................................................................17

2 Thu\ue036t to\u00e1n......................................................................................................................23

2.1 C\ue02b s\ue052 v\ue040 thu\ue036t to\u00e1n..................................................................................................24 2.1.1 Thu\ue036t to\u00e1n l\u00e0 g\u00ec?...............................................................................................24 2.1.2 Thu\ue036t to\u00e1n v\u00e0 c\ue032u tr\u00fac d\ue05a li\ue043u...........................................................................26

2.2 C\u00e1c thu\ue036t to\u00e1n.........................................................................................................30 2.2.1 Thu\ue036t to\u00e1n duy\ue043t...............................................................................................30 2.2.2 Thu\ue036t to\u00e1n s\ue037p x\ue03fp............................................................................................34 2.2.3 Thu\ue036t to\u00e1n\ue024 \ue043 qui..............................................................................................49 2.2.4 X\ue059 l\u00ed x\u00e2u k\u00ed t\ue05b..................................................................................................51 2.2.5 X\ue059 l\u00ed t\ue043p...........................................................................................................55 2.2.6 V\ue03e h\u00ecnh............................................................................................................63 2.2.7\ue026\ue04a th\ue045...............................................................................................................67 2.2.8 T\u00ednh to\u00e1n s\ue049.....................................................................................................71 2.2.9 Thu\ue036t to\u00e1n\ue024\ue049i s\u00e1nh..........................................................................................78 2.2.10

Thu\ue036t to\u00e1n x\ue032p x\ue044 v\u00e0 x\u00e1c su\ue032t........................................................................82
2.3\ue026\u00e1nh gi\u00e1 thu\ue036t to\u00e1n.................................................................................................87
2.3.1\ue026\u00e1nh gi\u00e1 theo\ue024 \ue04e ph\ue057c t\ue02ep t\u00ednh to\u00e1n..................................................................87
2.3.2\ue026\u00e1nh gi\u00e1 theo t\u00ednh h\ue054p l\ue043..................................................................................88
2.3.3\ue026\u00e1nh gi\u00e1 theo bi\ue041u di\ue042n....................................................................................88
2.4 C\u00e1ch thi\ue03ft k\ue03f thu\ue036t to\u00e1n...........................................................................................89

3 Thi\ue03ft k\ue03f trong................................................................................................................95

3.1 Thi\ue03ft k\ue03f trong l\u00e0 g\u00ec?................................................................................................96 3.1.1 M\ue055c\ue024\u00edch c\ue056a thi\ue03ft k\ue03f trong v\u00e0 nh\ue05ang\ue024 \ue017 \ue041m c\ue033n l\ue02du \u00fd.......................................96 3.1.2 Th\ue056 t\ue055c thi\ue03ft k\ue03f trong.......................................................................................97

3.2 Ph\u00e2n ho\ue02ech v\u00e0 c\ue032u tr\u00fac ch\ue057c n\ue025ng.........................................................................101 3.2.1 C\u00e1c\ue024 \ue02bn v\ue045 c\ue056a vi\ue043c ph\u00e2n ho\ue02ech v\u00e0 c\ue032u tr\u00fac ch\ue057c n\ue025ng...................................101 3.2.2 C\u00e1c th\ue056 t\ue055c ph\u00e2n ho\ue02ech v\u00e0 c\ue032u tr\u00fac ch\ue057c n\ue025ng................................................103 3.2.3 Ph\ue02d\ue02bng ph\u00e1p thi\ue03ft k\ue03f c\u00f3 c\ue032u tr\u00fac....................................................................109

3.3 Thi\ue03ft k\ue03f d\ue05a li\ue043u v\ue036t l\u00ed............................................................................................ 112

3.3.1 Th\ue056 t\ue055c thi\ue03ft k\ue03f d\ue05a li\ue043u v\ue036t l\u00ed..........................................................................112
3.3.2 T\ue04c ch\ue057c d\ue05a li\ue043u v\ue036t l\u00ed......................................................................................117
3.4 Thi\ue03ft k\ue03f v\u00e0o ra chi ti\ue03ft...........................................................................................120
3.4.1 Thi\ue03ft k\ue03f d\ue05a li\ue043u v\u00e0o chi ti\ue03ft............................................................................120

3.4.2 Thi\ue03ft k\ue03f m\u00e0n h\u00ecnh...........................................................................................123
2 Ch\ue014\ue013ng 1 C\ue017u tr\u00fac d\ue032 li\ue021u

3.4.3 Thi\ue03ft k\ue03f d\ue05a li\ue043u\ue024 \ue02da ra chi ti\ue03ft........................................................................132
3.5 T\ue02eo ra v\u00e0 d\u00f9ng l\ue02ei c\u00e1c b\ue04e ph\ue036n..............................................................................136
3.5.1 Kh\u00e1i ni\ue043m v\ue040 t\ue02eo ra v\u00e0 d\u00f9ng l\ue02ei c\u00e1c b\ue04e ph\ue036n...................................................136
3.5.2 D\u00f9ng g\u00f3i ph\ue033n m\ue040m.......................................................................................136
3.6 T\ue02eo ra t\u00e0i li\ue043u thi\ue03ft k\ue03f trong...................................................................................137
3.6.1 T\ue04c ch\ue057c t\u00e0i li\ue043u thi\ue03ft k\ue03f trong.........................................................................137
3.6.2 C\u00e1c\ue024 \ue017\ue041m c\ue033n l\ue02du \u00fd khi t\ue02eo ra t\u00e0i li\ue043u thi\ue03ft k\ue03f trong........................................139

3.6.3 Ki\ue041m\ue024 \ue017\ue041m thi\ue03ft k\ue03f.........................................................................................140
4 Thi\ue03ft k\ue03f ch\ue02d\ue02bng tr\u00ecnh...................................................................................................140
4.1 M\ue055c\ue024\u00edch v\u00e0 nhi\ue043m v\ue055 c\ue056a thi\ue03ft k\ue03f ch\ue02d\ue02bng tr\u00ecnh...................................................144
4.1.1 M\ue055c\ue024\u00edch c\ue056a thi\ue03ft k\ue03f ch\ue02d\ue02bng tr\u00ecnh.................................................................144

4.1.2 Nhi\ue043m v\ue055 thi\ue03ft k\ue03f ch\ue02d\ue02bng tr\u00ecnh......................................................................145
4.2 Thi\ue03ft k\ue03f c\u00f3 c\ue032u tr\u00fac cho ch\ue02d\ue02bng tr\u00ecnh....................................................................148
4.2.1 Th\ue056 t\ue055c thi\ue03ft k\ue03f c\u00f3 c\ue032u tr\u00fac.............................................................................148
4.2.2 C\u00e1c k\ue028 thu\ue036t ph\u00e2n ho\ue02ech m\u00f4\ue024un\ue024\ue017\ue041n h\u00ecnh...................................................... 151
4.2.3 Ti\u00eau ch\u00ed cho vi\ue043c ph\u00e2n ho\ue02ech m\u00f4\ue024un.............................................................160
4.2.4 Ph\u00e2n ho\ue02ech ch\ue02d\ue02bng tr\u00ecnh................................................................................171
4.3 T\ue02eo ra\ue024 \ue03bc t\ue030 m\u00f4\ue024un v\u00e0\ue024 \ue03bc t\ue030 ki\ue041m th\ue059................................................................173

4.3.1 T\ue02eo ra\ue024 \ue03bc t\ue030 m\u00f4\ue024un......................................................................................173

4.3.2 T\ue02eo ra\ue024 \ue03bc t\ue030 ki\ue041m th\ue059....................................................................................175
4.4 T\ue02eo ra t\u00e0i li\ue043u thi\ue03ft k\ue03f ch\ue02d\ue02bng tr\u00ecnh.......................................................................177
4.4.1 T\ue02eo ra t\u00e0i li\ue043u thi\ue03ft k\ue03f ch\ue02d\ue02bng tr\u00ecnh v\u00e0 n\ue04ei dung.............................................177
4.4.2 Nh\ue05ang\ue024\ue017\ue041m c\ue033n l\ue02du \u00fd khi t\ue02eo ra t\u00e0i li\ue043u thi\ue03ft k\ue03f ch\ue02d\ue02bng tr\u00ecnh........................179
4.4.3 H\ue047p ki\ue041m\ue024 \ue017 \ue041m thi\ue03ft k\ue03f..................................................................................179
5 Th\ue05bc hi\ue043n ch\ue02d\ue02bng tr\u00ecnh................................................................................................183

5.1 L\ue036p tr\u00ecnh...............................................................................................................184 5.1.1 M\u00f4 th\ue057c l\ue036p tr\u00ecnh............................................................................................184 5.1.2 Phong c\u00e1ch l\ue036p tr\u00ecnh.......................................................................................185 5.1.3 D\u00f9ng b\ue04e x\ue059 l\u00ed ng\u00f4n ng\ue05a..................................................................................186 5.1.4 M\u00f4i tr\ue02d\ue050ng l\ue036p tr\u00ecnh.......................................................................................187

5.2 Ki\ue041m th\ue059...............................................................................................................189 5.2.1 T\ue04cng quan v\ue040 ki\ue041m th\ue059...................................................................................189 5.2.2 Ki\ue041m th\ue059\ue000\ue024\ue02bn v\ue045.............................................................................................190 5.2.3 Ki\ue041m th\ue059 t\u00edch h\ue054p...........................................................................................190 5.2.4 Ki\ue041m th\ue059 h\ue043 th\ue049ng..........................................................................................195 5.2.5 C\u00e1c ki\ue041m th\ue059 kh\u00e1c..........................................................................................197 5.2.6 K\ue03f ho\ue02ech v\u00e0 nhi\ue043m v\ue055 ki\ue041m th\ue059.....................................................................197

6 C\ue036p nh\ue036t v\ue036n h\u00e0nh v\u00e0 ph\u00e1t tri\ue041n h\ue043 th\ue049ng.....................................................................204
6.1 Thi\ue03ft k\ue03f ch\ue02d\ue02bng tr\u00ecnh............................................................................................205
6.1.1 Thi\ue03ft k\ue03f ch\ue02d\ue02bng tr\u00ecnh h\ue02d\ue04fng\ue024 \ue049i t\ue02d\ue054ng..........................................................205
1
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u tr\u00fac d
\ue032
li
\ue021
u
\ue00c\ue05cc \ue02b\u00edch c\ue05ea ch\ue033\ue032ng
Vi\ue043c ch\ue047n c\ue032u tr\u00fac d\ue05a li\ue043u th\u00edch h\ue054p nh\ue032t v\u00e0 th\ue056 t\ue055c m\u00f4
\ue01f\ue030d\ue05ali\ue043u l\u00e0 m\ue032u ch\ue049t \ue024\ue041t\ue02eo ra ch\ue02d\ue02bng tr\u00ecnh hi\ue043u qu\ue030,
\ue014\ue042hi\ue041u.
Ch\ue02d\ue02bng n\u00e0y m\u00f4 t\ue030 c\u00e1c c\ue032u tr\u00fac d\ue05a li\ue043u\ue024a d\ue02eng b\ue02en c\ue033n
\ue01b\ue037m \ue024\ue02d\ue054c xem nh\ue02db\ue02d\ue04fc \ue024\ue033u ti\u00ean \ue024\ue041h\ue047cl\ue036p tr\u00ecnh.
\u2022 Hi\ue041u c\u00e1ch ph\u00e2n lo\ue02ei c\u00e1c c\ue032u tr\u00fac d\ue05a li\ue043u\ue024a d\ue02eng
\u201a Hi\ue041u c\u00e1c ki\ue041u d\ue05a li\ue043u c\ue02b s\ue052 th\u00f4ng d\ue055ng nh\ue032t v\u00e0
\ue01a\ue030ng d\ue05ali\ue043u
\u0192 Hi\ue041u c\u00e1c\ue024 \ue03bc tr\ue02dng v\u00e0 c\ue02b ch\ue03f c\ue056a c\ue032u tr\u00fac d\ue05a li\ue043u
\ue016\ue02d\ue04fng v\ue032n \ue024\ue040\ue000\ue024\ue02d\ue054c d\u00f9ng \ue024\ue041gi\ue030i quy\ue03ft c\u00e1c b\u00e0i to\u00e1n
\ue024\ue03bc bi\ue043t, c\ue029ng nh\ue02d c\u00e1ch d\u00f9ng c\ue032u tr\u00fac d\ue05ali\ue043u c\ue02bs\ue052
cho vi\ue043c c\u00e0i\ue024\ue03bt ch\ue02d\ue02bng tr\u00ecnh

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