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Hard Math #3 Explanations

Hard Math #3 Explanations

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\u00a9 2001 Princeton Review Management L.L.C.
Hard Math Practice Set 1: Explanations

This document contains explanations to the 49 hard math problems in Set 1. These explanations are as thorough as possible without writing a dissertation about each question. If the explanation is unclear please speak to your teacher, consult the relevant chapters of your course or contact your local office for help. Hope you fared well on the problems and good luck on your test!

1.
Best answer B. Remember probability is expressed as a fraction: (Number of possibilities
that meet requirement of question) divided by (Number of total possibilities). On the first deal
Tammie has 2 cards that would meet the requirement and 10 total possibilities. On the second deal
there is only 1 that would meet requirement and on ly 9 possibilities. Thus, we get two
fractions:
45
1
91
10
2
?
?
.
2.
Best answer C. Statement 1 only tells us abouty so it\u2019s not sufficient by itself, leaving us
choices BCE. Statement 2 tells us only aboutx , so it\u2019s also insufficient alone, thus we eliminate (B).
When the two statements are taken together, Statement 1 allows us to calculate the value ofy and
Statement 2 tells us that the value ofx is 2 (2 is the only number with exactly two factors only one of
which is an even positive), so the correct answer is (C).
3.
Best answer B. Statement 1 allows the possibility thatx is 0 or thatx andy are both 1, and
so is not sufficient by itself, leaving us choices BCE. Statement 2 only allows x to be 0, since 0 is the
only number that will give you itself when divided by 2.
4.
Best answer C. Ifn is greater than 5.3, then the smallestn ! can be is 6!. Since
1
2
3
4
5
6
!
6
?
?
?
?
?
?
, it is definitely divisible by 12, because any numbern ! bigger than 6 will
include both a 6 and a 2, thus making it a multiple of 12. Also,n ! does not have to be divisible by
anything greater than 6 so 7, 11, 13 are eliminated as are any multiples of those numbers, like 14.
5.
Best answer C. Don\u2019t do algebra here; it\u2019s a nightmare. Plug in the answers, since what you
are given is possibilities for the number of sides. Then find the probability of NOT getting a 4 and
see if it matches with what you are given. If you plug in answer choice C, you get seven sides. The
odds of NOT getting a number that is on one of those seven sides is
49
36
76
76
?
???
???
???
???
. Looks like we have
a winner. The answer is (C).
\u00a9 2001 Princeton Review Management L.L.C.
6.
Best answer B. Statement 1 only tells us whaty is. Without knowing something aboutx is
we cannot find out if!!
xyis even or odd, because ifx is 11 then
!
11
!
13would give us
12
13?
, which is an
even number, while ifx were 12,
!
12
!
13would give us 13, which is an odd number. Eliminate A and D.
Statement 2 tells us the relationship betweenx andy , by telling us that they are 2 apart. We now
know that no matter whaty is,x will be two less. So when you dividey ! byx !, you will always be left
with the two highest numbers, one even and one odd, and an even times an odd will always be even.
7.
Best answer C. Write out the factorial and then cancel everything that you can. Since 11!
includes both a 7 and an 11 we can cancel those numbers with the 77 in the denominator leaving us
with
1
2
3
4
5
6
8
9
10
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?

, and making answers (D) and (E) incorrect. Next, a glance at the answers shows that we don\u2019t need to solve the equation, but rather just put it in an exponential for, so the next step is to express the remaining numbers as products of 2\u2019s, 3\u2019s and 5\u2019s. 10 can be

expressed as
5
2?, 9 as
3
3?, and so on. Your final step would be to apply your exponent rule that
tells you when you multiply exponents with the same base you shoulda d d the exponents.
8.
Best answer A. The problem wants us to find the formula for two different compound
interests andt h en do the percent change formula, which would just be time consuming and brutal.
The easier way out is to start and eliminate choices as soon as possible. If we know the compound
interest formula: (principle)(1 + interest rate)# of compounding periods, then you should know that we need to
raise the amount to thep ow er of the number of periods, not multiply by the number of periods. This
eliminates answer choices B and C. Second if we pay attention to how often Rick\u2019s interest is
compounded we should note that his account compounds every quarter which means that his 12%

yearly is actually a 3 percent quarterly interest rate. which means that we should have (1.03) not
(1.12), eliminate D and E. Answer D also does not actually do the percent m ore that the problem ask
for it only finds the difference in there amounts after the 2 years.

9.
Best answer A. This one is tough. To understand the relevance of Statement 1, you have to
recognize the following :
??A factorial is divisible by all positive integers less than or equal to the integer you are taking a
factorial of. For example,x ! is divisible by all positive integers smaller thanx .
??Ifb is a multiple ofy , then if you addy tob , the result will still be divisible byy . For example 12
is divisible by 3. If I add 12 + 3 it will still be divisible by 3.

Alternatively plug in values forx andn and you will find out the facts mentioned above, but that\u2019s a lot of messy work. Statement 1 is sufficient. Keep AD, eliminate BCE. Statement 2 tells us nothing aboutx nor it\u2019s relationship ton . Stating thatn is NOT prime means it could be a vast number of values. Thus Statement 2 is not sufficient.

10.
Best answer C. Statement 1 does not tell us anything about the value ofx ora . so we can\u2019t
say whether it\u2019s prime or not, because ifx is 2 thena is prime, but ifx is anything other than 2, then
ais not prime. Statement 1 alone is insufficient. Eliminate AD and keep BCE. Statement 2 says

nothing abouta, thus Statement 2 is insufficient alone. Eliminate B and keep CE. Taken together,
we know thatx is greater than 2, and soa is the product of at least 3 integers (3!). Since a prime
number has only 2 factors,a cannot be prime, and the correct answer is (C).

\u00a9 2001 Princeton Review Management L.L.C.
11.
Best answer E. Statement 1 doesn\u2019t give us any rate, only the distance between their
starting points. Eliminate AD. Statement 2 gives us the rate, but no distance. So long B. Taken

together we still don\u2019t know if they are taking the same route. Sure, we know the shortest possible distance between Charlie and Chris, but we have no assurance that they are taking the same path. Or maybe there\u2019s no road that goes directly from one place to the other. Or maybe a bridge is out.

Evil? Yes. What do you think the E in ETS stands for, anyway? Remember, on Data Sufficiency, they
love to leave out information they know you\u2019ll assume you already know in order to trick you into
picking the wrong answer.
12.
Best answer A.

I:1x?x , the reciprocal of which is1x . But since it\u2019s not typically acceptable to have radicals in the denominator of a fraction, we need to multiply the fraction by one to get rid of the radical in the denominator:1x?xx?x

x, so the two are reciprocals Eliminate choices B and D, since they do not
contain the number I.
II: No. Try plugging-in a negative number forx and you will see that the two expressions are not
always reciprocals. Eliminate choice C (B and D as well unless you have already), because it contains
II.
III:
3
xcan be expressed as the fractionx3
1, the reciprocal of which is1
x3, NOTx
13. Eliminate and E,
since it includes III.
13.
Best answer D. To find the number of rats that are born and die each day we will need to
add the numbers given; however, since you cannot add numbers with different exponents, we need to
convert these powers of 10 to their integer values. The value of
4
10is 10,000 and the value of
5
10i s

100,000. Now we know that every two days 10,000 rats are born and 200,000 die. So every two days the number of rats decreases by 190,000. If the colony has 1 million rats at the end of a certain day, all we need to do is subtract 190,000 everyt w o days until we get less than 100,000.

14.
Best answer D. J ust your average killer combinations question. Find the number of ways
you can choose 2 out of 8 lettuce, then 1 out 4 tomatoes, then 1 out of 5 peppers, and lastly 2 out of 4
squash. Multiply them all together. The math would look like this:
? ?? ?
360
,
3
1
2
3
4
5
4
1
2
7
8
?
???
???
??
???
???
?
?
.
15.
Best answer D. This is a combinations question that is somewhat tougher because we aren\u2019t

given the number of sheep that were initially in the flock, or so it seems. Plug in the answers! In the answers we are given choices for the numbers of sheep in the flock all we have to do is try them out until one gives us the right number of distinct groups choosing 4 out of the flock. Start with choice C. If there are 7 sheep in the flock then we need to find out how many ways we can choose 4 of 7 sheep

when order does not matter. The math would look like:7? 6? 5? 4
4? 3? 2? 1. Since this yields 35, there must
be fewer than seven sheep. Try a smaller number. Six works.
16.
Best answer E. Remember that at least one is a clue, and when you see that phrase, you
need to find the probability of getting everything except what you want (in other words the
probability of getting any other color except blue), then subtract that from one. The formula for this
would be 1 \u2013 (the probability of getting the other colors).
17
12
17
5
1
17
9
18
10
1
?
?
?
???
???
?
?
.

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