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Microprocessor Interfacing

Microprocessor Interfacing

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Microprocessor Interfacing - v1.05 - J R Smith
1
MICROPROCESSOR INTERFACING
1 INTRODUCTION
2 BINARY LOGIC AND ELECTRONICS
2.1 From voltages to logic
2.2 TRI-STATE logic
2.3 Binary inputs and outputs
3 BINARY INPUT TRANSDUCERS

3.1 Mechanical switches.
3.2 Multiplexed inputs
3.3 Switch debouncing.

3.4 Some other switches
3.5 Non-mechanical switches.
3.6 Pseudo-binary inputs
4 BINARY OUTPUT TRANSDUCERS
4.1 Solenoids
4.2 Pseudo-binary outputs
5 ENCODING INFORMATION BY VARIATIONS WITH TIME
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Elapsed Time
5.3 Frequency Modulation (FM)
5.4 Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)
5.5 Bitstream Modulation (BSM)
5.6 Coding
5.7 Information coding in Biology (not required for exam)
6 BASIC ANALOGUE COMPONENTS
6.1 Amplifiers
6.2 Comparators
6.3 Using analogue transducers as binary transducers (not required for exam)
7 DIGITAL TO ANALOGUE CONVERSION
7.1 How many bits?

7.2 Bitstream
7.3 Binary-weighted resistors
7.4 R-2R Ladder

8 ANALOGUE TO DIGITAL CONVERSION
8.1 Parallel or Flash
8.2 Successive Aproximation
8.3 Integrating
8.4 Delta - Sigma
Microprocessor Interfacing - v1.05 - J R Smith
2
9 TRANSDUCERS
9.1 TRANSDUCERS FOR TEMPERATURE

9.1.1 Thermocouple
9.1.2 Thermistor
9.1.3 Semiconductor junction

9.1.4 Temperature dependent oscillator
9.1.5 Resistor
9.1.6 Peltier (thermoelectric) module.
9.2 TRANSDUCERS FOR LIGHT
9.2.1 Light Dependent Resistor (LDR)

9.2.2 Photodiode
9.2.3 Phototransistor
9.2.4 Solar cell

9.2.5 Incandescent lamp (Light Emitting Resistor)
9.2.6 Light Emitting Diode

9.3 TRANSDUCERS FOR SOUND
9.3.1. Dynamic microphones
9.3.2. Elecret, capacitor and condensor microphones

9.3.3 Dynamic Speaker
9.3.5 Electrostatic Loudspeaker
9.3.6 Magnetostrictive transducer

9.4 TRANSDUCERS FOR CHEMICAL CONCENTRATIONS
10 INTERACTION SCHEMES
10.1 Programmed interaction or polling
10.2 Interrupts
10.3 Direct Memory Access (DMA)
11 SOME ASPECTS OF COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE
11.1 Types of memory

These notes are written with specific reference to the 'ATOM' microcontroller. However
much of the information is also applicable to the 'BASIC STAMP' microcontroller or other
microcomputers.

Copyright J R Smith 2003
Microprocessor Interfacing - v1.05 - J R Smith
3
1 INTRODUCTION
You should now be familiar with the BASIC MICRO 'ATOM' microcontroller. It is based on
the 16F876 PICMicro MCU.

It has 8K of FLASH memory used for storing programs, 384 bytes of RAM for storing the
variables used in programs and 256 bytes of EEPROM that can store data when the power is
removed.

What can a device like this do?
It turns out that it can do almost anything. However it does have two fundamental limitations
- speed and complexity.

The internal cycle time (200 ns) and the time taken to execute instructions (of the order of 30
\u00b5s) both limit how rapidly the ATOM can respond to external events. This limitation can be
overcome for short periods by using external circuitry with a faster response. However for
continuous operation the speed is ultimately limited by the instruction execution time.
Consequently the ATOM is simply too slow for some tasks (e.g. real time, high fidelity, audio
processing).

The limited space available for program and variables also imposes an eventual upper limit on
the complexity of tasks that the ATOM can reasonably handle. However you are unlikely to
approach this limit. I have written large programs (>20 pages of code) that still fit into the 8K
memory.

Physicists are interested in the behaviour of the real world, however the parameters of interest
don't occur in the form of binary signals with voltage levels compatible with the binary logic
of microcomputers. Consequently transducers are used to convert various physical
parameters to and from suitable electrical signals.

These notes aim to provide an introduction to the

\u2022 interfacing computers to the real world
\u2022 some common transducers
\u2022 various techniques used to convert between analogue and digital variables
\u2022 techniques for synchronising a microcomputer with real world events

Suitable circuits and programming examples will be presented wherever possible. They will
often be specifically for the ATOM28, but the basic principles are applicable to most
microcomputers or microcontrollers.

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