3.1 Mechanical switches.
3.2 Multiplexed inputs
3.3 Switch debouncing.
7.3 Binary-weighted resistors
7.4 R-2R Ladder
9.1.3 Semiconductor junction
9.2.4 Solar cell
9.3 TRANSDUCERS FOR SOUND
9.3.1. Dynamic microphones
9.3.2. Elecret, capacitor and condensor microphones
9.3.3 Dynamic Speaker
9.3.5 Electrostatic Loudspeaker
9.3.6 Magnetostrictive transducer
These notes are written with specific reference to the 'ATOM' microcontroller. However
much of the information is also applicable to the 'BASIC STAMP' microcontroller or other
It has 8K of FLASH memory used for storing programs, 384 bytes of RAM for storing the
variables used in programs and 256 bytes of EEPROM that can store data when the power is
The internal cycle time (200 ns) and the time taken to execute instructions (of the order of 30
\u00b5s) both limit how rapidly the ATOM can respond to external events. This limitation can be
overcome for short periods by using external circuitry with a faster response. However for
continuous operation the speed is ultimately limited by the instruction execution time.
Consequently the ATOM is simply too slow for some tasks (e.g. real time, high fidelity, audio
The limited space available for program and variables also imposes an eventual upper limit on
the complexity of tasks that the ATOM can reasonably handle. However you are unlikely to
approach this limit. I have written large programs (>20 pages of code) that still fit into the 8K
Physicists are interested in the behaviour of the real world, however the parameters of interest
don't occur in the form of binary signals with voltage levels compatible with the binary logic
of microcomputers. Consequently transducers are used to convert various physical
parameters to and from suitable electrical signals.
\u2022 interfacing computers to the real world
\u2022 some common transducers
\u2022 various techniques used to convert between analogue and digital variables
\u2022 techniques for synchronising a microcomputer with real world events
Suitable circuits and programming examples will be presented wherever possible. They will
often be specifically for the ATOM28, but the basic principles are applicable to most
microcomputers or microcontrollers.
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