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Ice Engineering

Ice Engineering

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Published by: NaughtiusMaximus on Nov 03, 2011
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DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
EM 1110-2-1612
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
CECW-EH
Washington, DC 20314-1000
ManualNo. 1110-2-1612 30 October 2002
Engineering and DesignICE ENGINEERING
Table of Contents
Subject Paragraph Page
Chapter 1Introduction
Purpose ........................................................................................................................1-1 1-1Applicability................................................................................................................1-2 1-2Explanation of terms....................................................................................................1-3 1-2Ice impacts on Corps activities....................................................................................1-4 1-2References....................................................................................................................1-5 1-8
Introduction..................................................................................................................2-1 2-1Physical properties of ice and fresh water ...................................................................2-2 2-1Mechanical properties of freshwater ice......................................................................2-3 2-3Frazil ice ......................................................................................................................2-4 2-7Thermal ice growth......................................................................................................2-5 2-10Dynamic ice cover formation ......................................................................................2-6 2-13Ice cover breakup.........................................................................................................2-7 2-14References....................................................................................................................2-8 2-16
Introduction..................................................................................................................3-1 3-1
Section I. Nonstructural Ice Control
Mechanical measures to reduce the risk of ice jam formation.....................................3-2 3-1Thermal Measures to Reduce the Risk of Ice Jam Formation ....................................3-3 3-17Chemical Measures to Reduce the Risk of Ice Jam Formation ...................................3-4 3-28Breaking Ice Jams........................................................................................................3-5 3-35Cost and Performance of Nonstructural Measures ......................................................3-6 3-32Case Study...................................................................................................................3-7 3-36Discussion....................................................................................................................3-8 3-37
Section II. Structural Ice Control
Introduction .................................................................................................................3-9 3-38Sheet Ice Retention Structures ...................................................................................3-10 3-39Breakup Ice Control Structures ..................................................................................3-11 3-51
i
 
EM 1110-2-161230 Oct 02
Subject
 
Paragraph Page
Ice Diversion Structures..............................................................................................3-12 3-57Analysis ......................................................................................................................3-13 3-60References...................................................................................................................3-14 3-64
Introduction..................................................................................................................4-1 4-1
Section I. Modeling River Ice Covers
General.........................................................................................................................4-2 4-2Modeling ice covers with known geometry.................................................................4-3 4-2Modeling wide-river ice jams......................................................................................4-4 4-3Roughness of the ice accumulation .............................................................................4-5 4-6Limitations of ice modeling.........................................................................................4-6 4-6
Section II. The ICETHK Model
General.........................................................................................................................4-7 4-8Ice covers with known geometry.................................................................................4-8 4-8Equilibrium ice jam theory and ICETHK ...................................................................4-9 4-8Ice in overbank areas ..................................................................................................4-10 4-9Structure and operation of ICETHK...........................................................................4-11 4-9
Section III. The HEC-RAS Model
General........................................................................................................................4-12 4-10Ice covers with known geometry................................................................................4-13 4-11Ice jam thickness calculation......................................................................................4-14 4-12Solution procedure......................................................................................................4-15 4-12References...................................................................................................................4-16 4-14
Introduction..................................................................................................................5-1 5-1Ice effects on river stage and flooding.........................................................................5-2 5-1Data sources.................................................................................................................5-3 5-2Form of frequency analysis..........................................................................................5-4 5-3Approaches for developing ranked data tabulations....................................................5-5 5-5Summary......................................................................................................................5-6 5-12References....................................................................................................................5-7 5-12
Introduction..................................................................................................................6-1 6-1Mechanical Properties of Ice ......................................................................................6-2 6-2Environmental Forces .................................................................................................6-3 6-5Forces Limited by Ice Failure .....................................................................................6-4 6-7Forces Limited by the Momentum of an Ice Feature ..................................................6-5 6-18Canadian and American Codes ...................................................................................6-6 6-20Vertical Ice Forces ......................................................................................................6-7 6-21
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