DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY EM 1110-2-2906US Army Corps of EngineersCECW-ED Washington, DC 20314-1000Engineer ManualNo. 1110-2-2906 15 January 1991Engineering and DesignDESIGN OF PILE FOUNDATIONS1. Purpose. This manual provides information, foundation exploration andtesting procedures, load test methods, analysis techniques, allowable crite-ria, design procedures, and construction consideration for the selection,design, and installation of pile foundations. The guidance is based on thepresent state of the technology for pile-soil-structure-foundation interactionbehavior. This manual provides design guidance intended specifically for thegeotechnical and structural engineer but also provides essential informationfor others interested in pile foundations such as the construction engineer inunderstanding construction techniques related to pile behavior during instal-lation. Since the understanding of the physical causes of pile foundationbehavior is actively expanding by better definition through ongoing research,prototype, model pile, and pile group testing and development of more refinedanalytical models, this manual is intended to provide examples and proceduresof what has been proven successful. This is not the last nor final word onthe state of the art for this technology. We expect, as further practicaldesign and installation procedures are developed from the expansion of thistechnology, that these updates will be issued as changes to this manual.2. Applicability. This manual is applicable to all USACE commands havingcivil works responsibilities, especially those geotechnical and structuralengineers charged with the responsibility for design and installation of safeand economical pile foundations.FOR THE COMMANDER: _______________________________________This manual supersedes EM 1110-2-2906, 1 July 1958.