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Nanotechnology

Nanotechnology

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Published by: api-3827000 on Oct 18, 2008
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05/30/2015

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Nanotechnology is a field of applied science and technology covering a broad

range of topics. The main unifying theme is the control of matter on a scale
smaller than 1 micrometre, normally between 1-100 nanometers, as well as the
fabrication of devices on this same length scale. It is a highly multidisciplinary
field, drawing from fields such as colloidal science, device physics, and
supramolecular chemistry. Much speculation exists as to what new science and
technology might result from these lines of research. Some view
nanotechnology as a marketing term that describes pre-existing lines of
research applied to the sub-micron size scale.

Despite the apparent simplicity of this definition, nanotechnology actually
encompasses diverse lines of inquiry. Nanotechnology cuts across many
disciplines, including colloidal science, chemistry, applied physics, materials
science, and even mechanical and electrical engineering. It could variously be
seen as an extension of existing sciences into the nanoscale, or as a recasting of
existing sciences using a newer, more modern term. Two main approaches are
used in nanotechnology: one is a "bottom-up" approach where materials and
devices are built from molecular components which assemble themselves
chemically using principles of molecular recognition; the other being a "top-
down" approach where nano-objects are constructed from larger entities
without atomic-level control.

The impetus for nanotechnology has stemmed from a renewed interest in
colloidal science, coupled with a new generation of analytical tools such as the
atomic force microscope (AFM), and the scanning tunneling microscope
(STM). Combined with refined processes such as electron beam lithography
and molecular beam epitaxy, these instruments allow the deliberate
manipulation of nanostructures, and in turn led to the observation of novel
phenomena. The manufacture of polymers based on molecular structure, or the
design of computer chip layouts based on surface science are examples of
nanotechnology in modern use. Despite the great promise of numerous
nanotechnologies such as quantum dots and nanotubes, real applications that
have moved out of the lab and into the marketplace have mainly utilized the
advantages of colloidal nanoparticles in bulk form, such as suntan lotion,
cosmetics, protective coatings, and stain resistant clothing.

Origins

The first distinguishing concepts in nanotechnology (but predating use of that
name) was in "There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom," a talk given by physicist
Richard Feynman at an American Physical Society meeting at Caltech on
December 29, 1959. Feynman described a process by which the ability to
manipulate individual atoms and molecules might be developed, using one set
of precise tools to build and operate another proportionally smaller set, so on
down to the needed scale. In the course of this, he noted, scaling issues would
arise from the changing magnitude of various physical phenomena: gravity

would become less important, surface tension and Van der Waals attraction
would become more important, etc. This basic idea appears feasible, and
exponential assembly enhances it with parallelism to produce a useful quantity
of end products.

The term "nanotechnology" was defined by Tokyo Science University
Professor Norio Taniguchi in a 1974 paper (N. Taniguchi, "On the Basic
Concept of 'Nano-Technology'," Proc. Intl. Conf. Prod. Eng. Tokyo, Part II,
Japan Society of Precision Engineering, 1974.) as follows: "'Nano-technology'
mainly consists of the processing of, separation, consolidation, and deformation
of materials by one atom or one molecule." In the 1980s the basic idea of this
definition was explored in much more depth by Dr. K. Eric Drexler, who
promoted the technological significance of nano-scale phenomena and devices
through speeches and the books Engines of Creation: The Coming Era of
Nanotechnology and Nanosystems: Molecular Machinery, Manufacturing, and

Computation, (ISBN 0-471-57518-6), and so the term acquired its current
sense.

Nanotechnology and nanoscience got started in the early 1980s with two major
developments; the birth of cluster science and the invention of the scanning
tunneling microscope (STM). This development led to the discovery of
fullerenes in 1986 and carbon nanotubes a few years later. In another
development, the synthesis and properties of semiconductor nanocrystals was
studied. This led to a fast increasing number of metal oxide nanoparticles of
quantum dots. The atomic force microscope was invented five years after the
STM was invented. The AFM uses atomic force to see the atoms.

Fundamental concepts

One nanometer (nm) is one billionth, or 10-9 of a meter. For comparison,
typical carbon-carbon bond lengths, or the spacing between these atoms in a
molecule, are in the range .12-.15 nm, and a DNA double-helix has a diameter
around 2 nm. On the other hand, the smallest cellular lifeforms, the bacteria of
the genus Mycoplasma, are around 200 nm in length.

Larger to smaller: a materials perspective

Image of reconstruction on a clean Au(100) surface, as visualized using
scanning tunneling microscopy. The individual atoms composing the surface
are visible.

A unique aspect of nanotechnology is the vastly increased ratio of surface area
to volume present in many nanoscale materials which opens new possibilities
in surface-based science, such as catalysis. A number of physical phenomena
become noticeably pronounced as the size of the system decreases. These
include statistical mechanical effects, as well as quantum mechanical effects,
for example the \u201cquantum size effect\u201d where the electronic properties of solids
are altered with great reductions in particle size. This effect does not come into
play by going from macro to micro dimensions. However, it becomes dominant
when the nanometer size range is reached. Additionally, a number of physical
properties change when compared to macroscopic systems. One example is the
increase in surface area to volume of materials. This catalytic activity also
opens potential risks in their interaction with biomaterials.

Materials reduced to the nanoscale can suddenly show very different properties
compared to what they exhibit on a macroscale, enabling unique applications.
For instance, opaque substances become transparent (copper); inert materials
become catalysts (platinum); stable materials turn combustible (aluminum);
solids turn into liquids at room temperature (gold); insulators become
conductors (silicon). A material such as gold, which is chemically inert at
normal scales, can serve as a potent chemical catalyst at nanoscales. Much of
the fascination with nanotechnology stems from these unique quantum and
surface phenomena that matter exhibits at the nanoscale.

Simple to complex: a molecular perspective

Modern synthetic chemistry has reached the point where it is possible to
prepare small molecules to almost any structure. These methods are used today
to produce a wide variety of useful chemicals such as pharmaceuticals or

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