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Biochemistry - Reading and Practice Book Material

Biochemistry - Reading and Practice Book Material

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Published by Rakesh Sharma

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Published by: Rakesh Sharma on Nov 04, 2011
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07/25/2014

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BIOCHEMISTRY 
 
READING
MATERIAL
FOR
USMLE
EXAMINATION
STEP
1
 AND
READING
MATERIAL
FOR
 AMERICAN
BOARD
OF
CLINICAL
CHEMISTRY 
 
(Free
 
circulation
 
for
 
undergraduate
 
medical
 
and
 
biomedical
 
students)
 
With
 
problems,
 
exercises
 
and
 
practice
 
sessions
 
By
RAKESH
SHARMA,
Ph.D
 
Innovations
 And
Solutions,
Inc.
USA
3945
West 
Pensacola
Street,
Tallahassee,
Florida
32304
Contact:
Email:
rksz2009@gmail.com
 
 
1
CHAPTER
I
Cell Membrane
Introduction
The outer living boundary of the cell is called as the cell membraneor ‘Plasma membrane’. The term cell membrane was coined by C.J.Nageli and C. Crammer in 1855. Apart from the cell membrane, eachand every organelle in the cell is also covered by membranes. The cellmembrane not only limits the cell cytosol, but it has a variety of functionslike membrane transport, signal transduction and neuro transmission.
1.1Chemical Composition
To study the chemical composition of the cell membrane, thepreferred source is RBC, because they lack cell organelles and thus nocontamination of other cellular organelle membranes. The membranes othe RBCs devoid of cytosol are called as ‘ghosts’.Four major constituents are present in the cell membrane. Theyare (i) lipids (28 79%) (ii) proteins (20 70%). (iii) oligosaccharides(only 1 5%) and (iv) water (20%).
1.1.1Lipids
Depending upon the tissue from which the cell membrane isisolated, the composition also differs. Nearly 80% of the myelin sheath ismade up of lipids, while in liver, it constitutes only 28%.
For circulation to students in Medical and Biomedical disciplinesPlan: Section 1. Biochemistry for learners: pages 2- 234Section 2. Illustrated Medical Biochemistry: pages 235-391Section 3: Book material for Clinical Chemistry: pages 392-1346Section 4: Practice exercises and MCQ: 1347-1659_________________________________________________________TEXT eBOOKS INCLUDED_________________________________________________________
 
2
The main lipid components of the membranes are phospholipids,cholesterol and glycolipids. The major phospholipids present arephophatidyl choline (lecithin), phophatidyl ethanolamine, phophatidyl serineand phophatidyl inositol.Membrane lipids are amphipathic in nature and they have a headportion, which is hydrophilic and a tail portion which is hydrophobic. Asthe membranes are exposed to the hydrophilic environments, the lipidsarrange themselves to form a bilayer in which the hydrophobic core isburied inside the membrane.
Structure of phospholipid1.1.2Proteins
All the major functions of the plasma membrane are executed bythe proteins present in the membrane. Proteins account for about 20 70% of the membrane depending on the type of the cell. They can beclassified into two types. Integral membrane proteins and peripheralmembrane proteins.
 
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