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Giai Nhanh Bai Toan Hoa Hoc Bang Phuong Phap So Do Duong Cheo _Hoa Hoc Va Ung Dung, 7_2007

Giai Nhanh Bai Toan Hoa Hoc Bang Phuong Phap So Do Duong Cheo _Hoa Hoc Va Ung Dung, 7_2007

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Published by: api-3827844 on Oct 18, 2008
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Gi\ue000i nhanh b\u00e0i to\u00e1n h\u00f3a h\ue001c b\ue002ng ph\u01b0\u01a1ng ph\u00e1p \u201cs\u01a1 \u00f1\ue003 \u00f1\u01b0\ue004ng ch\u00e9o\u201d
T\ue005p ch\u00ed H\u00f3a H\ue001c v\u00e0\ue006ng d\ue007ng, s\ue008 7 (67) / 2007
L\u00ea Ph\ue000m Th\u00e0nh
Tr\u01b0\ue001ng THPTDL B\ue002c H\u00e0, H\u00e0 N\ue003i
- 1-
GI\ue000I NHANH B\u00c0I TO\u00c1N H\u00d3A H\ue001C
B\ue002NG PH\u01af\u01a0NG PH\u00c1P S\u01a0 \u00f0\ue003 \u00f0\u01af\ue004NG CH\u00c9O
L\u00ea Ph\ue000m Th\u00e0nh
Tr\u01b0\ue000ng THPTDL B\ue001c H\u00e0 \u2013 H\u00e0 N\ue002i

V\ue003i h\u00ecnh th\ue004c thi tr\ue001c nghi\ue005m kh\u00e1ch quan, trong m\ue002t kho\ue006ng th\ue000i gian t\u01b0\u01a1ng\u00f1\ue007i ng\ue001n h\ue008c sinh ph\ue006i gi\ue006i quy\ue009t m\ue002t s\ue007 l\u01b0\ue00ang c\u00e2u h\ue00bi v\u00e0 b\u00e0i t\ue00cp kh\u00e1 l\ue003n (trong\u00f1\u00f3 b\u00e0i t\ue00cp to\u00e1n chi\ue009m m\ue002t t\ue00d l\ue005 kh\u00f4ng nh\ue00b). Do\u00f1\u00f3 vi\ue005c t\u00ecm ra c\u00e1c ph\u01b0\u01a1ng ph\u00e1p gi\u00fap gi\ue006i nhanh b\u00e0i to\u00e1n h\u00f3a h\ue008c c\u00f3 m\ue002t \u00fd ngh\u0129a quan tr\ue008ng.

B\u00e0i to\u00e1n tr\ue002n l\ue00en c\u00e1c ch\ue00ft v\ue003i nhau l\u00e0 m\ue002t d\ue010ng b\u00e0i hay g\ue011p trong ch\u01b0\u01a1ng tr\u00ecnh h\u00f3a h\ue008c ph\ue012 th\u00f4ng. Ta c\u00f3 th\ue013 gi\ue006i b\u00e0i t\ue00cp d\ue010ng n\u00e0y theo nhi\ue014u c\u00e1ch kh\u00e1c nhau, song c\u00e1ch gi\ue006i nhanh nh\ue00ft l\u00e0\u201cph\u01b0\u01a1ng

ph\u00e1p s\u01a1 \u00f1\ue004 \u00f1\u01b0\ue001ng ch\u00e9o\u201d.
Nguy\u00ean t\ue002c: Tr\ue000n l\ue001n 2 dung d\ue002ch:
Dung d\ue002ch 1: c\u00f3 kh\ue003i l\u01b0\ue004ng m1, th\ue005 t\u00edch V1,
n\ue006ng\u00f1\ue000 C1 (C% ho\ue007c CM), kh\ue003i l\u01b0\ue004ng ri\u00eang d1.
Dung d\ue002ch 2: c\u00f3 kh\ue003i l\u01b0\ue004ng m2, th\ue005 t\u00edch V2,
n\ue006ng\u00f1\ue000 C2 (C2 > C1), kh\ue003i l\u01b0\ue004ng ri\u00eang d2.
Dung d\ue002ch thu\u00f1\u01b0\ue004c c\u00f3 m = m1 + m2, V = V1 + V2,
n\ue006ng\u00f1\ue000 C (C1 < C < C2), kh\ue003i l\u01b0\ue004ng ri\u00eang d.
S\u01a1 \u00f1\ue006 \u00f1\u01b0\ue008ng ch\u00e9o v\u00e0 c\u00f4ng th\ue009c t\u01b0\u01a1ng\ue009ng v\ue00ai
m\ue00bi tr\u01b0\ue008ng h\ue004p l\u00e0:
a)\u00f0\ue003i v\ue00ai n\ue006ng\u00f1\ue000 % v\ue00c kh\ue003i l\u01b0\ue004ng:
m1 C1
|C2 - C|
C
m2 C2
|C1 - C|
\u2192
(1)
|
C
C
|
|
C
C
|
mm
12
2
1
\u2212\u2212
=
b)\u00f0\ue003i v\ue00ai n\ue006ng\u00f1\ue000 mol/l\u00edt:
V1 C1
|C2 - C|
C
V2 C2
|C1 - C|
\u2192
(2)
|
C
C
|
|
C
C
|
VV
12
2
1
\u2212\u2212
=
c)\u00f0\ue003i v\ue00ai kh\ue003i l\u01b0\ue004ng ri\u00eang:
V1 d1
|d2 - d|
d
V2 d2
|d1 - d|
\u2192
(3)
|
d
d
|
|
d
d
|
VV
12
2
1
\u2212\u2212
=

Khi s\ue00d d\ue00eng s\u01a1 \u00f1\ue006 \u00f1\u01b0\ue008ng ch\u00e9o ta c\ue00fn ch\u00fa \u00fd: *) Ch\ue010t r\ue011n coi nh\u01b0 dung d\ue002ch c\u00f3 C = 100% *) Dung m\u00f4i coi nh\u01b0 dung d\ue002ch c\u00f3 C = 0% *) Kh\ue003i l\u01b0\ue004ng ri\u00eang c\ue012a H2O l\u00e0 d = 1 g/ml

Sau\u00f1\u00e2y l\u00e0 m\ue002t s\ue007 v\u00ed d\ue015 s\ue016 d\ue015ng ph\u01b0\u01a1ng ph\u00e1p
\u00f1\u01b0\ue000ng ch\u00e9o trong t\u00ednh to\u00e1n pha ch\ue009 dung d\ue017ch.
D\ue000ng 1: T\u00ednh to\u00e1n pha ch\ue009 dung d\ue017ch
V\u00ed d\ue001 1. \u00f0\ue005thu \u00f1\u01b0\ue004c dung d\ue002ch HCl 25% c\ue00fn
l\ue010y m1 gam dung d\ue002ch HCl 45% pha v\ue00ai m2 gam
dung d\ue002ch HCl 15%. T\ue013 l\ue014 m1 /m2 l\u00e0:
A. 1:2
B. 1:3
C. 2:1
D. 3:1
H\u01b0\ue005ng d\ue006n gi\ue007i:
\u00c1p d\ue00eng c\u00f4ng th\ue009c (1):
12
m| 15 25 | 10 1
m
|45 25|
20 2
\u2212
=
=
=
\u2212
\u21d2 \u00f0\u00e1p \u00e1n A.
V\u00ed d\ue001 2.\u00f0 \ue005pha \u00f1\u01b0\ue004c 500 ml dung d\ue002ch n\u01b0\ue00ac
mu\ue003i sinh l\u00ed (C = 0,9%) c\ue00fn l\ue010yV ml dung d\ue002ch
NaCl 3%. Gi\u00e1 tr\ue002 c\ue012aV l\u00e0:
A. 150
B. 214,3
C. 285,7
D. 350
H\u01b0\ue005ng d\ue006n gi\ue007i:
Ta c\u00f3 s\u01a1 \u00f1\ue006:
V1(NaCl) 3
|0 - 0,9|
0,9
V2(H2O) 0
|3 - 0,9|
\u21d2
(ml)
150
500
0,9
2,10,9
V1
=
\u22c5
+
=
\u21d2 \u00f0\u00e1p \u00e1n A.

Ph\u01b0\u01a1ng ph\u00e1p n\u00e0y kh\u00f4ng nh\ue018ng h\ue018u \u00edch trong vi\ue005c pha ch\ue009 c\u00e1c dung d\ue017ch m\u00e0 c\u00f2n c\u00f3 th\ue013 \u00e1p d\ue015ng cho c\u00e1c tr\u01b0\ue000ng h\ue00ap\u00f1\ue011c bi\ue005t h\u01a1n, nh\u01b0 pha m\ue002t ch\ue00ft r\ue001n v\u00e0o dung d\ue017ch. Khi\u00f1\u00f3 ph\ue006i chuy\ue013n n\ue019ng\u00f1\ue002 c\ue01aa ch\ue00ft r\ue001n nguy\u00ean ch\ue00ft th\u00e0nh n\ue019ng\u00f1\ue002 t\u01b0\u01a1ng\ue004ng v\ue003i l\u01b0\ue00ang ch\ue00ft tan trong dung d\ue017ch.

V\u00ed d\ue001 3.H\u00f2a tan 200 gam SO3 v\u00e0o m gam dung
d\ue002ch H2SO4 49% ta\u00f1\u01b0\ue004c dung d\ue002ch H2SO4 78,4%.
Gi\u00e1 tr\ue002 c\ue012am l\u00e0:
A. 133,3
B. 146,9
C. 272,2
D. 300,0
H\u01b0\ue005ng d\ue006n gi\ue007i:
Ph\u01b0\u01a1ng tr\u00ecnh ph\ue015n\ue009ng: SO3 + H2O\u2192 H2SO4
100 gam SO3\u2192
5
,
122
80100
98
=
\u00d7
gam H2SO4
N\ue006ng\u00f1\ue000 dung d\ue002ch H2SO4 t\u01b0\u01a1ng\ue009ng: 122,5%
G\ue016i m1, m2 l\ue00fn l\u01b0\ue004t l\u00e0 kh\ue003i l\u01b0\ue004ng SO3 v\u00e0 dung
d\ue002ch H2SO4 49% c\ue00fn l\ue010y. Theo (1) ta c\u00f3:
44,1
29,4
|
4
,
8
7
122,5
|
|
4
,
78
49
|
mm
2
1
=
\u2212
\u2212
=
\u21d2
(gam)
300
200
29,4
44,1
m2
=
\u00d7
=
\u21d2\u00f0\u00e1p \u00e1n D.
\u00f0i\ue013m l\u00ed th\u00fa c\ue01aa s\u01a1 \u00f1\ue019 \u00f1\u01b0\ue000ng ch\u00e9o l\u00e0 \ue01bc h\ue01c
ph\u01b0\u01a1ng ph\u00e1p n\u00e0y c\u00f2n c\u00f3 th\ue013 d\u00f9ng\u00f1\ue013 t\u00ednh nhanh
k\ue009t qu\ue006 c\ue01aa nhi\ue014u d\ue010ng b\u00e0i t\ue00cp h\u00f3a h\ue008c kh\u00e1c. Sau
\u00f1\u00e2y ta l\ue01dn l\u01b0\ue00at x\u00e9t c\u00e1c d\ue010ng b\u00e0i t\ue00cp n\u00e0y.
Gi\ue000i nhanh b\u00e0i to\u00e1n h\u00f3a h\ue001c b\ue002ng ph\u01b0\u01a1ng ph\u00e1p \u201cs\u01a1 \u00f1\ue003 \u00f1\u01b0\ue004ng ch\u00e9o\u201d
T\ue005p ch\u00ed H\u00f3a H\ue001c v\u00e0\ue006ng d\ue007ng, s\ue008 7 (67) / 2007
L\u00ea Ph\ue000m Th\u00e0nh
Tr\u01b0\ue001ng THPTDL B\ue002c H\u00e0, H\u00e0 N\ue003i
- 2-
D\ue000ng 2: B\u00e0i to\u00e1n h\ue01cn h\ue00ap 2\u00f1\ue019ng v\ue017
\u00f0\u00e2y l\u00e0 d\ue010ng b\u00e0i t\ue00cp c\u01a1b\ue006n trong ph\ue01dn c\ue00fu t\ue010o
nguy\u00ean t\ue016.
V\u00ed d\ue001 4.Nguy\u00ean t\ue00d kh\ue003i trung b\u00ecnh c\ue012a brom l\u00e0
79,319. Brom c\u00f3 hai\u00f1\ue006ng v\ue002 b\ue00cn:Br
79
35
v\u00e0 Br.
81
35
Th\u00e0nh ph\ue00fn % s\ue003 nguy\u00ean t\ue00d c\ue012aBr
81
35
l\u00e0:
A. 84,05
B. 81,02
C. 18,98
D. 15,95
H\u01b0\ue005ng d\ue006n gi\ue007i:
Ta c\u00f3 s\u01a1 \u00f1\ue006 \u00f1\u01b0\ue008ng ch\u00e9o:
Br (M=81)
35
81
Br (M=79)
35
79
A=79,319
79,319 - 79 = 0,319
81 - 79,319 = 1,681
\u21d2
%
100
319
,
0
681
,
1
319
,
0
Br
%
681
,
1
319
,
0
Br
%
Br
%
81
35
79
35
81
35
\u22c5
+
=
\u21d2
=
\u21d2
%
95
,
15
Br
%81
35
=
\u21d2 \u00f0\u00e1p \u00e1n D.
D\ue000ng 3: T\u00ednh t\ue00d l\ue005 th\ue013 t\u00edch h\ue01cn h\ue00ap 2 kh\u00ed
V\u00ed d\ue001 5. M\ue000t h\ue00bn h\ue004p g\ue006m O2, O3\ue017 \u00f1i\ue00cu ki\ue014n
ti\u00eau chu\ue018n c\u00f3 t\ue013 kh\ue003i\u00f1\ue003i v\ue00ai hi\u00f1ro l\u00e0 18. Th\u00e0nh
ph\ue00fn % v\ue00c th\ue005 t\u00edch c\ue012a O3 trong h\ue00bn h\ue004p l\u00e0:
A. 15%
B. 25%
C. 35%
D. 45%
H\u01b0\ue005ng d\ue006n gi\ue007i:
\u00c1p d\ue00eng s\u01a1 \u00f1\ue006 \u00f1\u01b0\ue008ng ch\u00e9o:
V M1= 48
|32 - 36|
M = 18.2 =36
V M2= 32
|48 - 36|
O2
O3
\u21d2
%
25
%
100
1
3
1
%V
3
1
12
4
VV
3
23
O
OO
=
\u22c5
+
=
\u21d2
=
=
\u21d2 \u00f0\u00e1p \u00e1n B.
V\u00ed d\ue001 6. C\ue00fn tr\ue000n 2 th\ue005 t\u00edch metan v\ue00ai m\ue000t th\ue005
t\u00edch\u00f1\ue006ng\u00f1\ue019ng X c\ue012a metan\u00f1\ue005 thu\u00f1\u01b0\ue004c h\ue00bn h\ue004p
kh\u00ed c\u00f3 t\ue013 kh\ue003i h\u01a1i so v\ue00ai hi\u00f1ro b\ue01ang 15. X l\u00e0:
A.C3H8
B. C4H10
C. C5H12
D. C6H14
H\u01b0\ue005ng d\ue006n gi\ue007i:
Ta c\u00f3 s\u01a1 \u00f1\ue006 \u00f1\u01b0\ue008ng ch\u00e9o:
V M1= 16
|M2 - 30|
M = 15.2 =30
V M2 =M2
|16 - 30|
M2
CH4
\u21d2
28
|
30
-
M
|
12
14
|
30
-
M
|
V
V
2
2
M
CH24
=
\u21d2
=
=
\u21d2M2 = 58 \u21d214n + 2 = 58 \u21d2n= 4
X l\u00e0: C4H10\u21d2\u00f0\u00e1p \u00e1n B.
D\ue000ng 4: T\u00ednh th\u00e0nh ph\ue01dn h\ue01cn h\ue00ap mu\ue007i trong
ph\ue006n\ue004ng gi\ue018a\u00f1\u01a1n baz\u01a1 v\u00e0\u00f1a axit

D\ue010ng b\u00e0i t\ue00cp n\u00e0y c\u00f3 th\ue013 gi\ue006i d\ue01e d\u00e0ng b\ue01fng ph\u01b0\u01a1ng ph\u00e1p th\u00f4ng th\u01b0\ue000ng (vi\ue009t ph\u01b0\u01a1ng tr\u00ecnh ph\ue006n\ue004ng,\u00f1\ue011t\ue020n). Tuy nhi\u00ean c\u0169ng c\u00f3 th\ue013 nhanh ch\u00f3ng t\u00ecm ra k\ue009t qu\ue006 b\ue01fng c\u00e1ch s\ue016 d\ue015ng s\u01a1 \u00f1\ue019

\u00f1\u01b0\ue000ng ch\u00e9o.
V\u00ed d\ue001 7. Th\u00eam 250 ml dung d\ue002ch NaOH 2M

v\u00e0o 200 ml dung d\ue002ch H3PO4 1,5M. Mu\ue003i t\ue01bo th\u00e0nh
v\u00e0 kh\ue003i l\u01b0\ue004ng t\u01b0\u01a1ng\ue009ng l\u00e0:
A. 14,2 gam Na2HPO4; 32,8 gam Na3PO4
B. 28,4 gam Na2HPO4; 16,4 gam Na3PO4
C. 12,0 gam NaH2PO4; 28,4 gam Na2HPO4
D. 24,0 gam NaH2PO4; 14,2 gam Na2HPO4

H\u01b0\ue005ng d\ue006n gi\ue007i:
C\u00f3:
2
3
5
0,2.1,5
0,25.2
nn
1
4
3PO
HNaOH
<
=
=
<
\u21d2T\ue01bo ra h\ue00bn h\ue004p 2 mu\ue003i: NaH2PO4, Na2HPO4
S\u01a1 \u00f1\ue006 \u00f1\u01b0\ue008ng ch\u00e9o:
Na2HPO4 (n1 = 2)
|1 - 5/3|
n
NaH2PO4 (n2 = 1)
|2 - 5/3|
53
=
2313
=
=
\u21d2
12
nn
4
2
4
2
PO
NaHHPO
Na
=
\u21d2
4
2
4
2
PO
NaH
HPO
Na
2n
n
=
M\u00e0
3
,
0
n
n
n
4
3
4
2
4
2
PO
H
PO
NaH
HPO
Na
=
=
+
(mol)
\u21d2
\ue000\ue001\ue000\ue002\ue003
==
(mol)
0,1
n
(mol)
0,2
n
4
2
4
2
PO
NaHHPO
Na
\u21d2
\ue000\ue001\ue000\ue002\ue003
=
=
=
=
(g)
12,0
0,1.120
m
(g)
28,4
0,2.142
m
4
2
4
2
PO
NaHHPO
Na
\u21d2\u00f0\u00e1p \u00e1n C.
D\ue000ng 5: B\u00e0i to\u00e1n h\ue01cn h\ue00ap 2 ch\ue00ft v\u00f4 c\u01a1 c\ue01aa 2
kim lo\ue010i c\u00f3 c\u00f9ng t\u00ednh ch\ue00ft h\u00f3a h\ue008c
V\u00ed d\ue001 8. H\u00f2a tan 3,164 gam h\ue00bn h\ue004p 2 mu\ue003i
CaCO3 v\u00e0 BaCO3 b\ue01ang dung d\ue002ch HCl d\u01b0, thu
\u00f1\u01b0\ue004c 448 ml kh\u00ed CO2 (\u00f1ktc). Th\u00e0nh ph\ue00fn % s\ue003mol
c\ue012a BaCO3 trong h\ue00bn h\ue004p l\u00e0:
A. 50%
B. 55%
C. 60%
D. 65%
H\u01b0\ue005ng d\ue006n gi\ue007i:
(mol)
0,02
22,4
0,448
n
2
CO
=
=
\u21d2
2
,
158
0,02
3,164
M
=
=
\u00c1p d\ue00eng s\u01a1 \u00f1\ue006 \u00f1\u01b0\ue008ng ch\u00e9o:
BaCO3(M1= 197)
|100 - 158,2| = 58,2
M=158,2
CaCO3(M2 = 100)
|197 - 158,2| = 38,8
\u21d2
60%
100%
38,8
58,258,2
%n
3
BaCO
=
\u22c5
+
=
\u21d2 \u00f0\u00e1p \u00e1n C.

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