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Equilibrium Studies for ion of Zinc Onto Gallus Domestic Us Shell Powder

Equilibrium Studies for ion of Zinc Onto Gallus Domestic Us Shell Powder

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Published by: Bharadwaj Santhosh on Nov 04, 2011
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EQUILIBRIUM STUDIES FOR BIOSORPTION OF ZINC ONTO GALLUSDOMESTICUS SHELL POWDER 
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ABSTRACT
Applications of statistical optimization techniques like artificial neural networks wererarely applied for biosorption systems. Statistically based experimental designs likeresponse surface methodology (Artificial neural networks) are more efficient, as variablesare tested simultaneously. Moreover, the interactions between different variables can beestimated. The present study aims to evaluate the efficiency of zinc sorption on
 gallusdomesticus
using Artificial intelligence techniques. Four process parameters (initialconcentrations, pH, Biosorbent dosage and biosorbents particle size) served as inputs tothe neural network models, and percentage biosorption of zinc served as a single outputof each model. Genetic algorithms were used to optimize the input space of the neuralnetwork models to monitor the zinc sorption on G
allus domesticus
. About 0.1g of 
 gallusdomesticus
was found to be enough to remove 80.51% of zinc of 20mg/l from 30 mlaqueous solution in 30 min. RSM (ANN) were carried out to obtain response surfacemodel describing zinc biosorption at various process conditions: initial concentration (20-100), pH (2-6), Biosorbent dosage (0.1-0.5) and biosorbent particle size (75-212).
INTRODUCTION
Heavy metals are released into aquatic ecosystems as by-products from various industrial processes and acid-mine drainage residues. They are highly toxic in ionic form as well ascompound form. They are soluble in water and may be rapidly absorbed by the livingorganisms. Zinc is one of the heavy metal enters the environment as the result of mining,
 
 purifying of zinc, lead, and cadmium ores, steel production, coal burning, and burning of wastes. Most of the zinc in lakes or rivers settles at the bottom. However, a small amountmay remain either dissolved in water or as fine suspended particles, dissolved zinc inwater may increase as the acidity of water. The high levels of zinc affect humanreproduction or cause birth defect, skin irritation.A wide range of work had been reviewed for removal of toxic metals, by various methodssuch as chemical precipitation, ion exchange, Reverse osmosis, Electro dialysis andadsorption.Biosorption is potentially an attractive technology for treatment of wastewater for retaining heavy metals from dilute solutions. Literature shows that the many biosorbents present in the nature have great capacity for removal of heavy metals.Biosrptions greatly varies with temperature, pH, adsorbent dosage, temperature, size of  biosorbent and substrate dosage.Response surface methodology combines statistical experimental designs and empiricalmodel building by regression for the purpose of process or product optimization. Anartificial neural network (ANN) is a mathematical representation of the neurologicalfunctioning of a brain. A typical artificial neural network has an input layer, one or morehidden layer, and an output layer. The neurons in the hidden layer, which are linked tothe neurons in the input and output layers by adjustable weights, enable the network tocompute complex associations between the input and output variables. The inputs of eachneuron in the hidden and output layers are summed and the resulting summation is processed by an activation function (Nagata et al. 2003). Artificial intelligence techniquescan be effectively integrated to create a powerful tool for process modeling andoptimization. The present study aims to monitor the zinc sorption on
 gallus domesticus
 by generating response surface plots using ANN technique at various pH, initialconcentrations, biosorbent dosage and biosorbent particle size.
MATERIAL AND METHODSPreparation of biosorbent
 
Hen egg shells were collected from MS Ramaiah Engineering hostels, MSRIT,Bangalore, Karnataka, India. Shells were washed with deionized water several times toremove dirt particles. The dried egg shells powders of 75-212 μm particle size were usedas biosorbent without any pretreatment for zinc adsorption.
Chemical
Analytical grades of ZnSO
4
7H
2
O, HCl and NaOH were purchased from Merck, India.Zinc ions were prepared by dissolving its corresponding sulphate salt in distilled water.The pH of solutions was adjusted with 0.1 N HCl and NaOH.
Biosorption experiments
Biosorption experiments were performed in a rotary shaker at 180 rpm using 250 mlErlenmeyer flasks containing 30 ml of different zinc concentrations. After one hour of contact (according to the preliminary sorption dynamics tests), with 0.1 g egg shell powder biomass, equilibrium was reached and the reaction mixture was centrifuged for 5min. The metal content in the supernatant was determined using Atomic AbsorptionSpectrophotometer (GBC Avanta Ver 1.32, Australia) after filtering the adsorbent withwhatman filter paper. The pH of the solution was adjusted by using 0.1 N HCl and 0.1 N NaOH. (Kalyani et al. 2009).
ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK 
The first step in implementing a neural network modeling approach is to design thetopology of the network. The choice of design parameters for a neural network is thusoften the result of empirical rules combined with trial and error. The configuration of theneural networks developed in this work (a 4-10-1 structure: four input neurons-tenneurons in one hidden layer-one output neuron) was determined after brieexperimentation. The data set comprising 19 experimental runs reported was split intotwo categories: a training set comprising 15 experimental runs was used to optimize the

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