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Photo Catalytic Degradation of Organic Pollutants in Dairy Effluent

Photo Catalytic Degradation of Organic Pollutants in Dairy Effluent

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Published by Bharadwaj Santhosh
Photo Catalytic Degradation of Organic Pollutants in Dairy Effluent
Photo Catalytic Degradation of Organic Pollutants in Dairy Effluent

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Published by: Bharadwaj Santhosh on Nov 04, 2011
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08/14/2012

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Photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants in dairy effluent
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Abstract
The present study was aimed to treat the dairy wastewater by photocatalyticoxidation methods. The photocatalytic treatment was carried out in a laboratory scale batch reactor with a working volume of 650mL. The main objective of the study is toevaluate the COD reduction of the effluent by varying parameters such as differentcatalysts (ZnO and TiO
2
), pH, effluent initial concentrations and light source (UV lampand Mercury lamp). The photocatalytic oxidation using TiO
2
removed higher percentageof COD than ZnO in the dairy effluent. The findings suggest that photo catalyticoxidation would be a promising alternative for the treatment of dairy wastewater.Keywords:
 photocatalytic; dairy; COD; TiO
2
 
1. Introduction
Dairy industries release large quantities of wastewater often the order of thousandcubic meters /day [1]. The dairy wastewater is similar to most other agro-industrieswastewaters, characterized by high biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemicaloxygen demand (COD) concentrations representing their high organic content [2] Highconcentration of organic matter in dairy wastewater causes pollution problems tosurroundings [3]. Aerobic methods tried to treat and dispose dairy wastewater [4] have been less efficient, mainly due to bulking and excessive growth of biomass [5].Installation cost of aerobic treatment systems are very high and require considerable inputenergy for aeration. Anaerobic method for the treatment of dairy wastewater is attractingthe attention of researchers because of the presence of high organic content in the waste,low energy requirement of the process, lesser sludge production and generation of fuel inthe form of methane [6]. It is reported that the efficiency of high rate anaerobic reactorscan be improved by restricting the supporting material to the top 25–30% of the reactor volume [7]. Such a modification would further help to realize the advantages of bothfixed film and up flow sludge blanket treatment. This kind of reactor, often called thehybrid anaerobic reactor has been reported to be more stable for the treatment of a seriesof soluble or partially soluble wastewater [8]. Over the years, hybrid reactors have beenused to treat wastewaters from sugar industry, sago, distilleries [9] and domestic sectors[10]. The elimination of organics present in wastewater has been investigated usingchemical and photochemical processes with varying successes [11]. Photocatalysis usingsemiconductors is a subject of increasing interest which has been extensively performedworldwide to find solutions for wastewater treatment, since the discovery of ‘Honda– Fujishima Effect’ three decades ago. In these processes, the oxidation occurs through anattack of OH_, which has a rate constant billions of times higher than normal rateconstants, using air as the oxidant. Among the semiconductors reported so far,outstanding stability and oxidative power makes TiO
2
, the best semiconductor  photocatalyst for environmental remediation and energy conversion processes [12]. TheUV radiation required for the photocatalytic processes can be obtained from artificialsources or the sun. There is a significant economic incentive for solar light based
 
 photocatalytic degradations. Recently [13] successfully reported the treatment of wastewater combining UASB technology and advanced oxidation processes (AOP’s) totreat food processing wastewaters. The solar photocatalytic treatment has the advantageto achieve additional destruction of organics in the wastewater but it is effective only tolow strength wastewater [14]. Considering this fact it was employed after the primaryanaerobic treatment. The treatment of wastewater using UV radiation holds promise for most part of the Asia [15]. Keeping it in mind, in the present study an attempt has beenmade for treating dairy wastewater.
2. Materials and methods.
The effluent is collected from avin milk dairy, Karaikudi. The organicsconcentration in the dairy wastewater was adjusted to the desired level by diluting thefeed water using distilled water. The characteristics of collected effluent is shown table.1
2.1
 
UV lamp setup:
The lab scale photo catalytic reactor is constructed from stainless steel. Themaximum loading capacity of the reactor is 500ml. A PVC frame was mounted on top of the reactor. The PVC frame had provisions for inserting the UV lamp. The exposedsurface of the UV lamp was housed in PVC tube.
2.2 Mercury lamp set up:

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