membranes module developed by CG & CRI were used for the purpose. Two types of highlypolluted wastewater were chosen: i) effluents from sulfur dyeing process of garment processingindustries and ii) effluents from the reactive dyeing process of hosiery dye houses. The effluentswere treated using a single stage process as well as a two-stage process and performance of boththe processes were compared in terms of the permeate quality and the permeate flux. In the singlestage process, the effluents were directly treated by cross-flow microfiltration (MF) process. In thetwo-stage process, the effluents were first pretreated using aluminum sulfate as coagulant and apolymer based flocculant at varying doses and at various pH of the solution. The supernatant wascollected after overnight settling and treated further by MF process. Microporus alumina supportand different coated membranes in a tubular single channel module configuration (filtration area0.0178 m
) was used. Experiments were carried out at transmembrane pressure of 1.0 kg/cm
.The efficiency of the separation process was evaluated in terms of the COD, color, turbidity, TDS,pH, conductivity etc.
The textile effluents were characterized in terms of color, turbidity, pH, TDS, conductivity, COD etc.shown in Table1. The effluents were treated taking two approaches. In the first approach (process1), the effluents were initially pretreated and thereafter treated in the microfiltration unit. In thesecond approach (process 2), the effluents were treated directly by microfiltration (without pretreatment). The scheme of the treatment process is shown in Fig. 1.The pretreatment of the effluents prior to the MF process was carried out supplied by ClariantChemicals (India) Ltd. in the varying dose of 0.6-2.0 ml/l with or without combination of Aluminumsulfate, Magnesium sulfate, Ferric chloride, Ferric sulfate, Calcium carbonate [All supplied 0.1 g/lby Merck.] The pre treatment was carried out at various pH (6-12). The solution after addingdesired amount of the coagulant was stirred at about 200 rpm for 5 minutes. The solution wasplaced in a graduated cylinder and kept for overnight settling. Supernatant was collected nextmorning and analyzed in terms of the turbidity, TDS, conductivity, pH, UV-Vis. spectra etc. Basedon the results of the jar test, pretreatment of the bulk volume of the effluent was carried out takingthe optimum dose of the chemicals and at solution pH of 7.0. The supernatant of the pre treatmentprocess was collected and treated further in the ceramic membrane based microfiltration unit.Microporus alumina support (KM/B11/30) in a tubular single channel configuration was used. Thefiltration area of the membrane was 0.0178 m
. Physical properties of the porous ceramic tube aregiven in Table 2. Experiment was conducted taking 4-4.5 lit feed solution, at transmembranepressure of 1.0 kg/cm
. Permeate samples were collected at specific time intervals and analyzed.Permeate flux was measured continuously. The duration of each experiment was about 60 min.
Results and Discussions
Turbidity of the permeate sample of black sulfur effluent collected after 1 hour of microfiltrationdecreases from 5912 NTU to 1.10 NTU in process 1 (MF after PT), and in process 2 (direct MF),the turbidity of permeate decreases to 11.9 NTU.
Colourless permeate samples were obtained for the composite sulfur dye effluent.In black sulfur dye effluent, trace amount of colour remains in the permeate samples of bothprocesses:
When the effluent was treated directly through microfiltration.
When the effluent was first pretreated and then microfiltration was carried out using porousceramic membrane 1 and 2.