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Treatment of Textile Waste Water Containing Black Sulfur Dye Using Ceramic Membrane Based Separation Process

Treatment of Textile Waste Water Containing Black Sulfur Dye Using Ceramic Membrane Based Separation Process

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Published by Bharadwaj Santhosh
Treatment of Textile Waste Water Containing Black Sulfur Dye Using Ceramic Membrane Based Separation Process
Treatment of Textile Waste Water Containing Black Sulfur Dye Using Ceramic Membrane Based Separation Process

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Published by: Bharadwaj Santhosh on Nov 04, 2011
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Treatment of Textile Wastewater Containing Black Sulfur DyeUsing Ceramic Membrane Based Separation Process
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Abstract
Ceramic Membrane based separation processes are unique considering the extent of purification,efficiency of the process because of faster permeation rate and extent of eco-friendliness. Textileindustry involves processing of fabric and consumes about 100 litres of water for every ton of cloths processed and produces extremely polluting effluents. In the present study, textilewastewater was collected from an industry located at of Mahestala, Budge Budge in KolkataMetropolitan Area, which is under extreme industrial pollution. The low cost ceramic membranesmodule developed by CG & CRI were used for the treatment to combat this situation. The effluentcontaining black sulphur dye and composite sulphur dye was pretreated using aluminum sulfate ascoagulant and a polymer based flocculant at varying doses and at various pH of the solution. Thesupernatant was collected after overnight settling and treated further by MF process. Microporusalumina support and different coated membranes in a tubular single channel module configuration(filtration area 0.0178 m
2
) was used. Experiments were carried out at transmembrane pressure of 1.0 kg/cm
2
. The efficiency of the separation process was evaluated in terms of the COD, color,turbidity, TDS, pH, conductivity etc.Key-words: textile effluent, reactive dyes, sulfur dyes, ceramic membrane, microfiltration,coagulation.
Introduction
Ceramic Membrane based separation processes are unique considering the extent of purification,efficiency of the process because of faster permeation rate and extent of eco-friendliness. Textileindustry involves processing or converting raw material/fabric into finished cloth/materialsemploying various processes and consumes large quantities of water and produces extremelypolluting effluents. In a typical dyeing and finishing mill, about 100 litre of water is consumed onthe average for every ton of cloths processed. Textile dyeing and finishing processes generate alarge quantity of colored wastewater containing residual dyes, textile auxiliaries and chemicals.Effluents from the textile industry usually contain high concentrations of organic compounds andare characterized by strong colour as well as high COD values. Dyes from the dyeing operationsare the major source of color in textile effluents. Among all the technological classes of dyesapplied to the dyeing of various textile fibres, the lowest exhaustion level is exhibited by thereactive dyes for cellulosic fibres since they have a low substantivity to the substrate and are verysensitive to hydrolysis at the required alkaline dyeing conditions [1]. Dye wastewater usuallyconsists of a number of contaminants including acids, bases, dissolved solids, toxic compoundsand fixing compounds characterized by its high chemical oxygen demand (COD), and color.In the present study, textile wastewater was collected from an industry located at of Mahestala,Budge Budge in Kolkata Metropolitan Area. The entire area of Mahestala is under extremeindustrial pollution. To combat this situation, the Govt. of West Bengal is about to set up a TextilePark there which will be having ETP with all advanced treatments. This prompted the presentresearch group to quest for an appropriate green Separation technology to treat dye wastewater for its safe reuse. Considering the ecofriendliness and user friendliness low cost ceramic
1
 
membranes module developed by CG & CRI were used for the purpose. Two types of highlypolluted wastewater were chosen: i) effluents from sulfur dyeing process of garment processingindustries and ii) effluents from the reactive dyeing process of hosiery dye houses. The effluentswere treated using a single stage process as well as a two-stage process and performance of boththe processes were compared in terms of the permeate quality and the permeate flux. In the singlestage process, the effluents were directly treated by cross-flow microfiltration (MF) process. In thetwo-stage process, the effluents were first pretreated using aluminum sulfate as coagulant and apolymer based flocculant at varying doses and at various pH of the solution. The supernatant wascollected after overnight settling and treated further by MF process. Microporus alumina supportand different coated membranes in a tubular single channel module configuration (filtration area0.0178 m
2
) was used. Experiments were carried out at transmembrane pressure of 1.0 kg/cm
2
.The efficiency of the separation process was evaluated in terms of the COD, color, turbidity, TDS,pH, conductivity etc.
Experimental
The textile effluents were characterized in terms of color, turbidity, pH, TDS, conductivity, COD etc.shown in Table1. The effluents were treated taking two approaches. In the first approach (process1), the effluents were initially pretreated and thereafter treated in the microfiltration unit. In thesecond approach (process 2), the effluents were treated directly by microfiltration (without pretreatment). The scheme of the treatment process is shown in Fig. 1.The pretreatment of the effluents prior to the MF process was carried out supplied by ClariantChemicals (India) Ltd. in the varying dose of 0.6-2.0 ml/l with or without combination of Aluminumsulfate, Magnesium sulfate, Ferric chloride, Ferric sulfate, Calcium carbonate [All supplied 0.1 g/lby Merck.] The pre treatment was carried out at various pH (6-12). The solution after addingdesired amount of the coagulant was stirred at about 200 rpm for 5 minutes. The solution wasplaced in a graduated cylinder and kept for overnight settling. Supernatant was collected nextmorning and analyzed in terms of the turbidity, TDS, conductivity, pH, UV-Vis. spectra etc. Basedon the results of the jar test, pretreatment of the bulk volume of the effluent was carried out takingthe optimum dose of the chemicals and at solution pH of 7.0. The supernatant of the pre treatmentprocess was collected and treated further in the ceramic membrane based microfiltration unit.Microporus alumina support (KM/B11/30) in a tubular single channel configuration was used. Thefiltration area of the membrane was 0.0178 m
2
. Physical properties of the porous ceramic tube aregiven in Table 2. Experiment was conducted taking 4-4.5 lit feed solution, at transmembranepressure of 1.0 kg/cm
2
. Permeate samples were collected at specific time intervals and analyzed.Permeate flux was measured continuously. The duration of each experiment was about 60 min.
Results and Discussions
Turbidity Reduction
Turbidity of the permeate sample of black sulfur effluent collected after 1 hour of microfiltrationdecreases from 5912 NTU to 1.10 NTU in process 1 (MF after PT), and in process 2 (direct MF),the turbidity of permeate decreases to 11.9 NTU.
Colour Removal:
Colourless permeate samples were obtained for the composite sulfur dye effluent.In black sulfur dye effluent, trace amount of colour remains in the permeate samples of bothprocesses:
When the effluent was treated directly through microfiltration.
When the effluent was first pretreated and then microfiltration was carried out using porousceramic membrane 1 and 2.
2
 
Chemical Oxygen Demand:
The chemical oxygen demand in mg/l in black sulfur dye effluent is 3910 mg/l. After the membranestudy of pretreated permeate with aluminum sulfate the COD removal was found to be 700 mg/l.The %COD removal was found to be 78.12%.
Total Suspended Solids:
The total suspended solids of black sulfur effluent with pH variation when treated with aluminumsulfate, was found to be ranging from 76% to 80%. When treated with ferric chloride, the rangewas found to be in between 75% to 80%. When treated with ferric sulfate and lime, the range wasfound to be in between 76% to 79%. During membrane study, when the permeate was treated withaluminum sulfate the removal was 99%.
Conclusion
Considerable turbidity removal was achieved for all the effluents (>99%). In the combined processof pre treatment followed by MF, colour removal was reasonable for most of the effluents, exceptthe black sulphur effluent . The Pre treatment process results in better permeate flux comparedwith the direct CMF process.
References
[1] S. Bandyopadhyay, S. Ghosh, G.C.Sahoo and H.S. Maiti, Treatment of a Textile Dye-BathEffluent Using Coagulation Followed by Microfiltration. In Proceedings of Water 2006, NEERI,International Workshop on R&D Frontiers in Water and WastewaterManagement[2]S. M. Burkinshaw, S. N. Chevli, D. J. Marfell, The dyeing of nylon 6,6 with sulphur dyes,Dyes & Pig. 45 (2000) 65-74.[3]G. Vera, V. Aleksandra, S. Marjana, Efficiency of the coagulation/flocculation method for the treatment of dyebath effluents, Dyes and Pig. 67 (2005) 93-97.[4]C. Fersi, L. Gzara, M. Dhahbi, Treatment of textile effluents by membrane technologies.Desal.185 (2005) 399-409.
Figure Legends:
Table1: Characterization of the raw effluents
Sl NoEFFLUENT NAME TDS(g/dm
3
)pH Turbidity(NTU)Conductivity(mS/cm)1.Black sulphur effluent (United LaundryIndia Pvt Ltd.)20.2 12.07 5912 36.92.Composite sulphur effluent(United Laundry India Pvt Ltd.)1.336 7.75 398 2.87
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