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Soda Lab Report

Soda Lab Report

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Published by chewie14
Lap report for Chemisty Honors -- involving density, accuracy, precision
Lap report for Chemisty Honors -- involving density, accuracy, precision

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Published by: chewie14 on Oct 18, 2008
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01/08/2013

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Accuracy and Precision: Density of a Soda Can – September 29, 2008
 The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the significance of precision and accuracy in scientific research. Throughout the course of thisexperiment, we explored how precision and accuracy related to working in alaboratory. Accuracy is a measure of how close an obtained value is to the true, oraccepted, value. Precision is how consistent a set of measurements are, and howclose they are to each other. Together, accuracy and precision tell if a set of measurements or results are reproducible and significant. This experiment alsoinvestigates which measuring device is more accurate and reliable to use. A 50 mLbeaker and 10 mL were compared to see which instrument measured 10 mL of water more accurately. All of this is connected to the importance of accuracy andprecision, regardless of the situation it is being used in. The first procedure of the experiment involved finding the relative density of soda cans in regards to water. Density measures how concentrated mass is in aparticular space, or mass per unit volume. Density can be calculated by:
Density = mass (g)/volume (mL)
 There were two cans of soda used – Pepsi and Diet Pepsi. Using the providedbuckets of water, the cans were dropped, and any observations were recorded. ThePepsi can immediately sank straight to the bottom, while the Diet Pepsi remainedfloating on top of the water. The below data table ranks the two sodas in increasingrelative density.
 
Can of SodaRelative Density
Diet Pepsi< waterPepsi> water  This occurrence of one can sinking, while another floats, can be explained byexamining what each soda contains in its ingredients. Pepsi contains a sweetenerknown as high fructose corn syrup in large quantities, thus making up for itsrelatively high sugar content of 41 g. Diet Pepsi uses a non-nutritive sweetenerknown as aspartame. Because aspartame is much sweeter than high fructose cornsyrup, it is used in smaller amounts. For example, high fructose corn syrup is athick, dense substance constituting for nearly 10% of the soda. High fructose syrupis also a lot denser than water, so it will retain this attribute when added to Pepsi.Aspartame only makes up about 1% of the entire soda, making Pepsi denser thanDiet Pepsi. Therefore, Pepsi’s higher density forces it to sink in water, while DietPepsi’s lower density allows it to float.Before calculating the density for these sodas, we had to find out whichmeasuring device was capable of producing more accurate measurements. Thisdevice was determined by adding a specified volume into a pre-weighed container.Calculating the difference in mass, the mass of water can be found, which can thenallow us to determine the delivered volume. By repeating this trial several times,the chance of error is minimized. Water was poured into both the beaker andgraduated cylinder up to their marked 10 mL line. Then, that volume was poured
 
into a container, which had already been weighed by an electronic balance. Thechange in mass gave us the mass for the volume of water. Using a given density of water, 0.9998 g/mL, we found the measured volume of water, and determined itspercentage of error to see how close it was to the 10 mL measured. The average volume of water determined from the 50 mL beaker was 6.393mL, while the 10 mL graduated cylinder had an average volume of 9.667 mL. Theaverage volume of water was determined by adding the volume of all three trialsand dividing by the number of trials.
Average Volume =
Sum of all volumesNumber of Trials
 
50 mL beaker 10 mL graduated cylinder 
Average Volume =
6.51+6.30+6.373
Average Volume =
9.73+9.64+9.633
Average Volume =
19.183
Average Volume =
29.003
Average Volume ≈ 6.393Average Volume ≈ 9.667
 To determine the percentage of error, the following equation was used:
percent error =
|exp.value-true value|true value
 
×
100%
 50 mL beaker 10 mL graduated cylinder 
percent error =
|exp.value-true value|true value
 
×
100%percent error =
|exp.value-true value|true value
 
×
100%percent error =
|6.393-10|10
 
×
100% percenterror =
|9.667-10|10
 
×
100%percent error =
|-3.607|10
 
×
100% percenterror =
|-.333|10
 
×
100%percent error =
3.60710
 
×
100% percenterror =
.33310
 
×
100%percent error = .3607
×
100% percenterror = .0333
×
100%percent error ≈ 36.07%percent error ≈ 3.33%
 
According to these results, the graduated cylinder was easily shown as the bestmeasuring device, since it only had a 3.33% error, while the beaker had a 36.07%error. Having proved it more accurate, the graduated cylinder was used for theremainder of the experiment. The following data table on the next page gives exactmeasurements and results obtained from this part of the experiment.
50 mL beaker 10 mL graduated cylinder 
1. mass of container
67.6367.79
1. mass of container andwater
74.1477.52
1. mass of water
6.519.73
1. calculated volume of water
6.519.73
2. mass of container
67.8767.78
2. mass of container andwater
47.1777.42
2. mass of water
6.39.64
2. calculated volume of water
6.39.64
3. mass of container
67.7866.77
3. mass of container andwater
74.1577.4
3. mass of water
6.379.63
3. calculated volume of water
6.379.63
Average volume of water
6.3939.667
Percent error
36.07%3.33%
Accuracy ranking
less accuratemore accurateAfter determining that the graduated cylinder was the more accuratemeasuring device, the density of the sodas had to be determined. The procedure forfinding the density of the soda was very similar to the previous procedure. Using apipette, 10 mL of soda was poured into the graduated cylinder. The Pepsi was flatbecause the carbonation would cause errors in measurements. The mass of anempty container was calculated using an electronic balance. Then, the 10 mL of Pepsi was poured into the container, and the mass difference was the mass of thePepsi for 10 mL of volume. Using the obtained mass and volume, the density wasfound for the Pepsi. This procedure was repeated several times to avoid any chanceof error and ensure precision. The following data table shows the obtained resultsfrom this procedure.
Measurements

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