Consider these two sentences. “He was a zealous promoter of the cause.” “He was a
fanatical promoter of the cause.”The words “zealous” and “fanatical” mean essentially the same
thing and are listed as synonyms in a thesaurus.
However, “zealous” is ge
nerally seen as a
positive enthusiasm, while “fanatical” is generally seen as negative. Another
synonymous words with different connotations is “giggle
” and “guffaw
An understanding about what is happening based upon information that is given indirectly (anunderstanding
derived from “
eading between the lines”
Language that is not literal; additional meaning is present. There are several elements:a.
The use of human characteristics to describe non human beings or things.b.
A Symbol is something that is itself but also represents or stands for something else. A flag is apiece of cloth that can be seen, felt, and experienced through the senses, but it also represents a country orcommunity. In literature, symbols are usually used in this way, with something tangible also representingsomething abstract, on a different level of meaning.c.
A comparison of two unlike things using the word
A figure of speech (a form of irony) in which exaggeration is used for emphasis or effect; anextravagant statement. Adjective: hyperbolic.e.
A figure of speech in which one word or phrase is substituted for another with which it is
closely associated (such as “crown” for “royalty”).
Metonymy is also the rhetorical strategy of describing something indirectly by referring to thingsaround it, such as describing someone's clothing to characterize the individual.f.
A figure of speech in which a part is used to represent the whole (for example, ABCs foralph
abet) or the whole for a part (“
gland won the World Cup in 1966”
). Synecdoche is often treatedas a type of metonymy.e.
is the concept of understanding one thing in terms of another. A metaphor is afigure of speechthat constructs ananalogybetween two things or ideas; the analogy is conveyed by the use of a
metaphorical word in place of some other word. For example:
The streets were a f
urnace, the sun an executioner.”
(Cynthia Ozick, “Rosa”
The components of a metaphor are tenor and vehicle; tenor refers to the concept, object, or personmeant, and the vehicle being the image that carries the weight of the comparison. The words were firstused in this sense by the critic I.A. Richards (1893-1979)
. In the first stanza of Abraham Cowley’s poem“The Wish,” the tenor is the city and the vehicle is a beehive:
Well then; I now do plainly see,
This busy world and I shall ne’er agree;
The very honey of all earthly joyDoes of all meats the soonest cloy;And they, methinks, deserve my pity...
There are several common forms of metaphors:1.
one in which the sense of a transfer
red image is absent. Examples: “
to grasp a
concept” and “
o gather what you’ve understood”
use physical action as a metaphor forunderstanding. Most people do not visualize the action
dead metaphors normally go unnoticed.Some people distinguish between a dead metaphor and a cliché
. Others use “dead metaphor”
Extended metaphor (conceit)
: establishes a principal subject (comparison) and subsidiary subjects(comparisons). The
As You Like It
quotation is a good example, the world is described as a stage, andthen men and women are subsidiary subjects further described in the same context.