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VietNam After 5years Implementing MDGs

VietNam After 5years Implementing MDGs

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Briefing Note on
Prepared by the GSO Viet Nam

In September 2000, Heads of the State and Governments of the United Nations together
committed to implement the Millennium Declaration and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)
with 8 goals (Annex 1) by 2015. Viet Nam has adapted the MDGs to the country\u2019s specific conditions and
integrated these goals into its socio-economic development strategies and programs. Based on the MDGs,
Viet Nam has set up its own 12 developments goals (Annex 2) (referred to as Vietnam\u2019s Development
Goals (VDGs), which mainly focus on the social development and poverty reduction targets until 2010.
The VDGs, being in line with the common progress and taking into account typical development features
of Viet Nam, provide a basis to facilitate the implementation of MDGs in Viet Nam in a timely, reliable and
effective manner.

The important Achievements
Poverty reduction by more than 50 percent. During the 5 years (2001-2005) Viet Nam has been

successful in reducing poverty and alleviating hunger. According to international-standard definition
poverty line (including both food and non-food poverty) the proportion of poor households in Viet Nam has
dramatically decreased from 58.1% in 1993 to 24.1% in 2004, reducing the number of poor households by
nearly 60% in more than a decade (Table 1).

Table 1: Poverty rates (%) in Viet Nam 1993-2004
The whole country

Urban/ Rural

North East
North West
Red River Delta
North Central
South Central Coast
Central Highlands
South East
Mekong Delta
Source: Vietnam Development Report, 2003 and GSO. 2005

From the table the proportion of poor households decreased in the whole country, in all urban and rural areas as well as in all regions, although at different rates. The most rapid reduction of poverty was in the North East, from 81.5% in 1993 to 31.7% in 2004; and slowest was in the North West, from 81% to 54.4%. Similarly the decreased rate of rural area was faster than that of urban area.

Universal primary Education has been achieved in Viet Nam. Primary school enrolment increased
from about 90% of the primary school age group in the early 1990s to 94.4% in the 2003-2004 school
years. The repetition of classes and number of dropouts has been reduced at all grades in primary schools.
Gender Equality and Woman status. Viet Nam has achieved notable results in promoting gender

equality. The gender development indicator (GDI) increased from 0.668 in 1998 to 0.689 in 2004 among the best performances in the region. The ratio of literate women to men between ages 15 and 24 was 0.99 in 2002. The proportion of female representatives in the National Assembly is over 27%, among the highest in Asia.

Child Health Care has been improved. The child mortality rate of under-five fell dramatically

from 58 per thousand live births in 1990 to 31.4 per thousand in 2004. Similarly the infant mortality rate was 44 per thousand live births in 1990 to 18 per thousand in 2004. The rate of children getting vaccinated with 6 types of vaccines was 96.7%, relatively high in the region.

Woman\u2019s Reproductive Health has been significantly improved. The maternal mortality rate was
reduced from 1.2 per thousand live births in the period 1989-1994 to 0.85 per thousand in 2004.
Prevention and Control of HIV/AIDS, Malaria and other Diseases. The Government of Viet Nam

has issued the National Strategy for HIV/AIDS prevention and established National Committee and Provincial Steering Committees on HIV/AIDS prevention. There are 41 testing labs in 34 provinces/cities to detect and monitor people affected with HIV/AIDS. Most of provinces have medical wards to treat HIV/AIDS patients. Malaria is also under effective control in Viet Nam. The proportion of malaria cases was reduced from 900 per 100,000 people in 1995 to less than 200 per 100,000 in 2004.

Environmental Sustainability. The sustainable development strategy has been approved by the

Government of Viet Nam. Natural preservation and protection has been focused and progressed. Forestation was increased from 27% in 1990 to 37% in 2004. The proportion of people with access to clean water increased from 26.2% in 1993 to 70% in 2004.

Global Partnership for Development is promoted in the spirit of \u201cmaking friends with all countries

in the international community, striving for peace, independence and development\u201d. Up to now Viet Nam has signed more than 80 bilateral trade and investment agreements and established economic relations with over 170 countries and territorial areas over the world.

The Challenges
Although Viet Nam has achieved remarkable results in implementing the MDGs, the country still
faces some problems and challenges:
High poverty incidence still exists in rural, mountainous areas and Central
Highlands, the poorest areas in Viet Nam.
Education in remote areas is difficult. The number of repeaters and dropouts is
The average working time of women is 13 hours a day while men work only 9
hours. Average income of women is 21% lower than that of men.
The under \u20135 malnutrition rate is still very high (26.6%).
The accessibility to maternal health care in the mountainous and remote areas is
limited. The rate of abortion and menstrual extraction has again increased.
There are many problems with treatment HIV/AIDS because of high cost, lack
of funding and discrimination against HIV-infected people.
Environmental pollution increases. Deforestation is problem.
Competitiveness and high requirements of international trade make difficult and
challenges to the Vietnamese economy.
1. Updates on MDG Reporting: Statistics and the Process
In Viet Nam so far 4 country MDG reports have been produced, namely:
2001: Progress Implementation of The Millennium

Development Goals (IDT/MDG).
2002: Bringing MDGs Closer to The People.
2003: Millennium Development Goals Closing the Millennium

2005: Viet Nam Achieving The Millennium Development

The first three MDG reports were mainly prepared and written by UN Expert Country Team (UNCT.) with active participation of the Government of Viet Nam. The latest report of 2005 was prepared and produced by 12 different governmental agencies of Viet Nam with financial and technical support from UNDP and contributions of from many international and national experts and organizations. The Ministry of Panning and Investment (MPI) was taking lead on the MDGR process and consolidating the reports from the line ministries. The main source of data and figures were used from the General Statistics Office (GSO) of Viet Nam. So the GSO as a leading agency to coordinate the statistical activities according to the new Statistical Law 2004 provided the data and assured the statistical quality for the MDG report. The report also uses data provided by several international organizations and Vietnamese governmental agencies such as World Bank, UNICEF, Ministry of Health (MOH), Ministry of Education and Training (MOET), Ministry of Labor, War Invalids and Social Affairs (MOLISA), Committee for Population, Family and Children (CPFC), etc.

The assessment of data quality in the latest MDG report of Viet Nam can be seen from the Status of Statistics on MDGs in Viet Nam (Annex 3). The General Statistics Office, the MOH, MOET, CPFC and MOLISA successfully provided the most of data and indicators for MDG Report in relation with the poverty, education, gender equality, child mortality and maternal health of the Goal 1, 2,3,4 and Goal 5. Many indicators werenot

available for example the indicators relating to the Goals 6, 7 and 8, more specifically the

HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases data, environmental data and especially the data about global partnership for development. No availability of these indicators is due to lack of perception of importance and meaning of indicators or/and budget, or right methodology of data collection.

The other problem of data provision for MDG report is lack of effective coordination of statistical system and activities, although the General Statistics Office plays an important role in data coordination. Most ministries have their statistical apparatus and statistical units and they conduct specific surveys to collect data and information for producing their own statistics and purpose, sometime led to overlapping or inconsistency. Therefore the stronger and more unique statistical coordination system is needed in terms of setting up the National Statistical Indicators System for MDG and National Agenda, standardizing data with consistency and facilitating the dialogue between data producers and data users for identifying the data gap to be filled, improving the quality of data and better data availability for MDG report.


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