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Linear Variable Differential Transformer

Linear Variable Differential Transformer

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Published by sourav

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Categories:Types, Speeches
Published by: sourav on Nov 05, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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10/29/2014

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SUGATA MUNSHIDepartment of Electrical EngineeringJadavpur University
Page 1 of 24
LINEAR VARIABLE DIFFERENTIALTRANSFORMER ( LVDT) 
The LVDT is a short-stroke linear displacement measuring devicehaving extremely fine resolution , high accuracy and good stability.Since a number of physical variables such as pressure, load, velocity andacceleration can be measured in terms of displacement, LVDT forms thebasic sensing element in all such measurements.The LVDT is widelyused as the basic element in extensometers, electronic comparators,thickness-measuring units and level indicators.
 
 
SUGATA MUNSHIDepartment of Electrical EngineeringJadavpur University
Page 2 of 24
The LVDT consists of three coaxial coils. A thin-walled three-sectionbobbin or former of bakelite, teflon, ceramic or other electricalinsulating material , carries the primary winding on the middle sectionand two identical secondary coils on the two side sections. A rod shapedferromagnetic core normally of Nickel-iron alloy , positioned centrallyinside the coil assembly, is provided to move precisely in the axialdirection in the former bore. The displacement to be measured istransferred to the magnetic core through suitable linkages. Aferromagnetic sheath covers the outer side of the coils to provide thepath for completing the magnetic circuit and also to provide mechanicalprotection. The secondaries are connected in series opposition. Theprimary is normally excited by a sinusoidal voltage of RMS value 3 to15 V and frequency of 50 Hz to 20 KHz. The core has a a longitudinalslot for reducing eddy currents.
 
 
SUGATA MUNSHIDepartment of Electrical EngineeringJadavpur University
Page 3 of 24
Theory: 
With sinusoidal voltage applied to the primary, sinusoidal emfs areinduced in the two secondaries. The ferromagnetic core inside the coilassembly provides a preferred path for magnetic flux linking the coils.When the core is symmetrically placed with respect to the twosecondaries (i.e. the core is centrally located), equal voltages are inducedin the secondaries , and since they are in series opposition, the net outputvoltage is ideally zero. This position is termed as the “Null Position” or“Electric Zero” position.When the core is displaced from the null position, the induced voltage inthe secondary towards which it moves , increases, while that in the othersecondary decreases. This results in a differential output voltage fromthe transformer. With proper design of coils, the magnitude of the outputsignal is made to vary linearly with the displacement of the core on bothsides with respect to the null position, over a considerable distance.
CIRCUIT ANALYSIS FOR 
CIRCUIT ANALYSIS FOR 
CIRCUIT ANALYSIS FOR 
CIRCUIT ANALYSIS FOR 
A FIXED CORE POSITION :
A FIXED CORE POSITION :
A FIXED CORE POSITION :
A FIXED CORE POSITION :
 
Let I
p
(j
ω
) be the primary current and R
p
and L
p
be the primary coilresistance and inductance respectively.
 
Let E
o
(j
ω
) be the differentialoutput voltage under open circuit condition.Then,

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