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Piezoelectric Transducers_lect

Piezoelectric Transducers_lect

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Published by sourav

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Categories:Types, Speeches
Published by: sourav on Nov 05, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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03/22/2013

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Sugata MunshiDepartment of Electrical Engineering
 
Jadavpur University
 
Page
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PIEZOELECTRIC TRANSDUCERS PIEZOELECTRIC TRANSDUCERS PIEZOELECTRIC TRANSDUCERS PIEZOELECTRIC TRANSDUCERS 
 
DIRECT PIEZOELECTRIC EFFECT:An electric polarization is produced by mechanicalstrain in crystals belonging to certain classes, thepolarization being proportional to the strain andchanging sign with the strain. As a result of thispolarization, electric charges appear at the surfaces of the crystal.
 
Charge q that develops, can be determined from theoutput voltage, since,
 
 
Sugata MunshiDepartment of Electrical Engineering
 
Jadavpur University
 
Page
2
of 
43
 
q = C E
0
 where C is the capacitance of the sample of piezoelectric material.
 
Materials such as quartz, Rochelle salt, tourmaline,lithium sulphate (LS), ammonium dihydrogenphosphate are
inherently piezoelectric
.
 
There are other materials (ferroelectric ceramics)e.g. barium titanate, which can be made to havepiezoelectric properties by artificial polarization.
 
Polling:
 
Strong electric field is applied to the material,while it is heated to a temperature above Curiepoint (125
°°°°
C for barium titanate).
 
Then it is slowly cooled up to room temperature,with the field still applied.
 
When the electric field is removed from thecooled material, there is a remnant polarizationand the material exhibits piezoelectricproperties.
 
 
Sugata MunshiDepartment of Electrical Engineering
 
Jadavpur University
 
Page
3
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43
 
 
Such materials are known as polarizedpiezoelectric materials. Other examples are
lead  zirconate
and
lead metaniobate
.A piezoelectric crystal has two sets of constants:(a) The charge sensitivity or piezoelectric constant ‘d’defined as the charge generated per unit forceapplied.(b) The voltage sensitivity ‘g’ defined as the electricfield produced per unit stress.Both the ‘g’and ‘d’ constants depend on the directionof application of force, and also on the direction of measurement.
force applied in x and measurement in y direction.force applied in z and measurement in z direction
 xy xy zz zz
gg
 

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