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Chuong 4

Chuong 4

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Published by: api-3768589 on Oct 18, 2008
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03/18/2014

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32
Ch\u01b0\u01a1ng 4: B\u1ea2O V\u1ec6 CH\u1ed0NG CH\u1ea0M\u0110\u1ea4T
I. B\u1ea3o v\u1ec7 d\u00f2ng th\u1ee9 t\u1ef1 kh\u00f4ng Trong m\u1ea1ng c\u00f3 d\u00f2ng ch\u1ea1m
\u0111\u1ea5t l\u1edbn:
B\u1ea3o v\u1ec7 d\u00f2ng th\u1ee9 t\u1ef1 kh\u00f4ng\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c th\u1ef1c hi\u1ec7n nh\u1edd m\u1ed9t r\u01a1le RI n\u1ed1i v\u00e0o b\u1ed9 l\u1ecdc d\u00f2ng th\u1ee9 t\u1ef1
kh\u00f4ng LIo .
H\u00ecnh 4.1 : S\u01a1 \u0111\u1ed3 n\u1ed1i r\u01a1le v\u00e0o
b\u1ed9 l\u1ecdc d\u00f2ng th\u1ee9 t\u1ef1 kh\u00f4ng g\u1ed3m 3BI
H\u00ecnh 4.2 : K\u1ebft h\u1ee3p s\u01a1 \u0111\u1ed3 b\u1ed9 l\u1ecdc - r\u01a1le d\u00f2ng
th\u1ee9 t\u1ef1 kh\u00f4ng v\u1edbi s\u01a1 \u0111\u1ed3 sao khuy\u1ebft
I.1. D\u00f2ng qua r\u01a1le:
Khi chi\u1ec1u c\u1ee7a c\u00e1c d\u00f2ng\u0111i\u1ec7n\u0111\u00e3 ch\u1ea5p nh\u1eadn nh\u01b0 trong s\u01a1 \u0111\u1ed3 h\u00ecnh 4.1 v\u00e0 4.2, d\u00f2ng
\u0111i\u1ec7n qua r\u01a1le RI b\u1eb1ng:
I
I I I
R
a
b
c
.
.
.
=
+
+
.
D\u00f2ng th\u1ee9 c\u1ee7a BI t\u01b0\u01a1ng\u1ee9ng v\u1edbi s\u01a1 \u0111\u1ed3 thay th\u1ebf (h\u00ecnh 2.13) l\u00e0:
I II
I I
T
S
S
T
S
.
'
.
'
.
.
.
(
)
= \u2212
=
\u2212
\u00b5
\u00b5
\u03c9
\u03c9
V\u00ed d\u1ee5:
I
I I
a
S
T
A
A
.
.
(
)
=
\u2212
.
\u03c9
\u03c9
\u00b5
V\u00ec v\u1eady:
I
I I I
I
I
I
R
S
T
A
B
C
S
T
A
B
C
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
(
)
(
=
+ +
\u2212
+
+
\u03c9
\u03c9
)
\u03c9
\u03c9
\u00b5
\u00b5
\u00b5
T\u1ed5ng d\u00f2ng t\u1eeb h\u00f3a c\u1ee7a 3 m\u00e1y bi\u1ebfn d\u00f2ng quy\u0111\u1ed5i v\u1ec1 ph\u00eda th\u1ee9 c\u1ea5p c\u1ee7a ch\u00fang\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c g\u1ecdi
l\u00e0 d\u00f2ng kh\u00f4ng c\u00e2n b\u1eb1ng th\u1ee9 c\u1ea5p c\u1ee7a b\u1ed9 l\u1ecdc:
I
I
I
KCBT
S
T
A
B
C
.
.
.
(
=
+
+I.
)
\u03c9
\u03c9
\u00b5
\u00b5
\u00b5
(4.1)
T\u1ed5ng:I I I
I
n
A
B
C
TS
I
.
.
.
.
+ +
=
=
30 ;
\u03c9\u03c9
V\u1eady:
I
I
nI
R
I
KCBT
.
.
.
=
\u2212
30
(4.2)
Nh\u01b0 v\u1eady b\u1ea3o v\u1ec7 ch\u1ec9 t\u00e1c\u0111\u1ed9ng\u0111\u1ed1i v\u1edbi c\u00e1c d\u1ea1ng ng\u1eafn m\u1ea1ch c\u00f3 t\u1ea1o n\u00ean d\u00f2ng Io (ng\u1eafn
m\u1ea1ch ch\u1ea1m\u0111\u1ea5t).
33
\u0110\u1ed1i v\u1edbi c\u00e1c b\u1ed9l\u1ecdc d\u00f9ng BI l\u00ed t\u01b0\u1edfng c\u00f3 I\u00b5 = 0 th\u00ec IKCBT = 0. Tuy nhi\u00ean th\u1ef1c t\u1ebf c\u00e1c BI
lu\u00f4n lu\u00f4n c\u00f3 d\u00f2ng t\u1eeb h\u00f3a v\u00e0 d\u00f2ng t\u1eeb h\u00f3a\u1edf c\u00e1c pha l\u00e0 kh\u00e1c nhau m\u1eb7c d\u00f9 d\u00f2ng s\u01a1 c\u1ee7a c\u00e1c
pha c\u00f3 tr\u1ecb s\u1ed1 b\u1eb1ng nhau, v\u00ec v\u1eady IKCBT\u2260 0.
I.2. D\u00f2ng kh\u1edfi\u0111\u1ed9ng c\u1ee7a b\u1ea3o v\u1ec7:

Trong t\u00ecnh tr\u1ea1ng l\u00e0m vi\u1ec7c b\u00ecnh th\u01b0\u1eddng ho\u1eb7c khi ng\u1eafn m\u1ea1ch gi\u1eefa c\u00e1c pha (kh\u00f4ng ch\u1ea1m\u0111\u1ea5t) th\u00ec d\u00f2ng th\u1ee9 t\u1ef1 kh\u00f4ng I0 = 0. Do v\u1eady\u0111\u1ec3 b\u1ea3o v\u1ec7 kh\u00f4ng t\u00e1c\u0111\u1ed9ng khi ng\u1eafn m\u1ea1ch gi\u1eefa c\u00e1c pha ngo\u00e0i v\u00f9ng b\u1ea3o v\u1ec7 c\u1ea7n ch\u1ecdn:

IK\u0110= kat. IKCBStt
(4.4)
D\u00f2ng IKCBStt\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c t\u00ednh to\u00e1n\u0111\u1ed1i v\u1edbi tr\u01b0\u1eddng h\u1ee3p ng\u1eafn m\u1ea1ch ngo\u00e0i kh\u00f4ng ch\u1ea1m\u0111\u1ea5t v\u00e0
cho d\u00f2ng l\u1edbn nh\u1ea5t.
\u0110\u1ed3ng th\u1eddi \u0111\u1ec3ph\u1ed1i h\u1ee3p \u0111\u1ed9nh\u1ea1y gi\u1eefa c\u00e1c b\u1ea3o v\u1ec7th\u1ee9t\u1ef1 kh\u00f4ng th\u00ec d\u00f2ng kh\u1edfi \u0111\u1ed9ng c\u1ee7a
b\u1ea3o v\u1ec7\u0111o\u1ea1n sau (g\u1ea7n ngu\u1ed3n h\u01a1n) ph\u1ea3i ch\u1ecdn l\u1edbn h\u01a1n b\u1ea3o v\u1ec7\u0111o\u1ea1n tr\u01b0\u1edbc m\u1ed9t \u00edt.
D\u00f2ng kh\u1edfi\u0111\u1ed9ng c\u1ee7a b\u1ea3o v\u1ec7 th\u1ee9 t\u1ef1 kh\u00f4ng th\u01b0\u1eddng b\u00e9 h\u01a1n nhi\u1ec1u so v\u1edbi d\u00f2ng l\u00e0m vi\u1ec7c
c\u1ef1c\u0111\u1ea1i c\u1ee7a\u0111\u01b0\u1eddng d\u00e2y n\u00ean\u0111\u1ed9 nh\u1ea1y kh\u00e1 cao.
I.3. Th\u1eddi gian l\u00e0m vi\u1ec7c:
B\u1ea3o v\u1ec7 d\u00f2ng th\u1ee9 t\u1ef1 kh\u00f4ng c\u00f3 \u0111\u1eb7c t\u00ednh th\u1eddi gian \u0111\u1ed9c l\u1eadp,\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c ch\u1ecdn theo nguy\u00ean t\u1eafc
b\u1eadc thang. X\u00e9t v\u00ed d\u1ee5 \u0111\u1ed1i v\u1edbi m\u1ea1ng h\u1edf c\u00f3 m\u1ed9t ngu\u1ed3n cung c\u1ea5p v\u00e0 c\u00f3 trung t\u00ednh\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c n\u1ed1i\u0111\u1ea5t
ch\u1ec9 m\u1ed9t\u0111i\u1ec3m \u1edf \u0111\u1ea7u ngu\u1ed3n (h\u00ecnh 4.3).
B\u1ea3o v\u1ec7 2a\u1edf c\u00e1c tr\u1ea1m B, C c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c ch\u1ec9nh\u0111\u1ecbnh kh\u00f4ng th\u1eddi gian (th\u1ef1c t\u1ebf t2a\u22480,1
gi\u00e2y) v\u00e0 th\u1eddi gian t\u00e1c\u0111\u1ed9ng c\u1ee7a c\u00e1c b\u1ea3o v\u1ec7 \u0111\u01b0\u1eddng d\u00e2y l\u00e0:
t3a = t2a +\u2206t ;
t4a = t3a +\u2206t
Tr\u00ean\u0111\u1ed3 th\u1ecb h\u00ecnh 4.3 c\u0169ng v\u1ebd \u0111\u1eb7c t\u00ednh th\u1eddi gian c\u1ee7a c\u00e1c b\u1ea3o v\u1ec7 1\u00f7 4 l\u00e0m nhi\u1ec7m v\u1ee5
ch\u1ed1ng ng\u1eafn m\u1ea1ch nhi\u1ec1u pha trong m\u1ea1ng.

T\u1eeb h\u00ecnh 4.3 v\u00e0 nh\u1eefng\u0111i\u1ec1u\u0111\u00e3 tr\u00ecnh b\u00e0y tr\u00ean\u0111\u00e2y ta c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 th\u1ea5y\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c\u01b0u\u0111i\u1ec3m ch\u00ednh c\u1ee7a b\u1ea3o v\u1ec7 d\u00f2ng th\u1ee9 t\u1ef1 kh\u00f4ng so v\u1edbi b\u1ea3o v\u1ec7 n\u1ed1i v\u00e0o d\u00f2ng pha to\u00e0n ph\u1ea7n l\u00e0 th\u1eddi gian l\u00e0m vi\u1ec7c b\u00e9 v\u00e0\u0111\u1ed9 nh\u1ea1y cao.

H\u00ecnh 4.3 : \u0110\u1eb7c t\u00ednh th\u1eddi gian c\u1ee7a b\u1ea3o v\u1ec7 d\u00f2ng TTK v\u00e0 c\u1ee7a b\u1ea3o v\u1ec7
34
n\u1ed1i v\u00e0o d\u00f2ng pha trong m\u1ea1ng c\u00f3 trung t\u00ednh n\u1ed1i\u0111\u1ea5t tr\u1ef1c ti\u1ebfp
II. B\u1ea3o v\u1ec7 d\u00f2ng th\u1ee9 t\u1ef1 kh\u00f4ng Trong m\u1ea1ng c\u00f3 d\u00f2ng ch\u1ea1m
\u0111\u1ea5t b\u00e9:

Trong c\u00e1c m\u1ea1ng c\u00f3 d\u00f2ng\u0111i\u1ec7n ch\u1ea1m\u0111\u1ea5t b\u00e9 (trung t\u00ednh kh\u00f4ng n\u1ed1i\u0111\u1ea5t ho\u1eb7c n\u1ed1i\u0111\u1ea5t qua cu\u1ed9n d\u1eadp h\u1ed3 quang) gi\u00e1 tr\u1ecb d\u00f2ng\u0111i\u1ec7n ch\u1ea1m\u0111\u1ea5t m\u1ed9t pha th\u01b0\u1eddng kh\u00f4ng qu\u00e1 v\u00e0i ch\u1ee5c Ampere. V\u00ed d\u1ee5 nh\u01b0\u1edf m\u1ea1ng c\u00e1p,\u0111\u1ec3 ch\u1ea1m\u0111\u1ea5t m\u1ed9t pha kh\u00f4ng chuy\u1ec3n th\u00e0nh ng\u1eafn m\u1ea1ch nhi\u1ec1u pha th\u00ec ch\u1ea1m\u0111\u1ea5t l\u1edbn nh\u1ea5t cho ph\u00e9p v\u00e0o kho\u1ea3ng 20\u00f730A. Nh\u1eefng b\u1ea3o v\u1ec7 d\u00f9ng r\u01a1le n\u1ed1i v\u00e0o d\u00f2ng\u0111i\u1ec7n pha to\u00e0n ph\u1ea7n kh\u00f4ng th\u1ec3 l\u00e0m vi\u1ec7c v\u1edbi d\u00f2ng \u0111i\u1ec7n s\u01a1c\u1ea5p b\u00e9 nh\u01b0v\u1eady, v\u00ec th\u1ebf ng\u01b0\u1eddi ta d\u00f9ng c\u00e1c b\u1ea3o v\u1ec7 n\u1ed1i qua b\u1ed9 l\u1ecdc d\u00f2ng\u0111i\u1ec7n th\u1ee9 t\u1ef1 kh\u00f4ng.

B\u1ea3o v\u1ec7 \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c\u0111\u1eb7t \u1edf \u0111\u1ea7u\u0111\u01b0\u1eddng d\u00e2y AB v\u1ec1 ph\u00eda tr\u1ea1m A trong m\u1ea1ng c\u00f3 trung t\u00ednh c\u00e1ch
\u0111\u1ea5t (h\u00ecnh 4.15).
II.1. D\u00f2ng kh\u1edfi\u0111\u1ed9ng:
D\u00f2ng kh\u1edfi\u0111\u1ed9ng c\u1ee7a b\u1ea3o v\u1ec7 \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c x\u00e1c\u0111\u1ecbnh theo\u0111i\u1ec1u ki\u1ec7n ch\u1ecdn l\u1ecdc: B\u1ea3o v\u1ec7 kh\u00f4ng
\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c t\u00e1c \u0111\u1ed9ng khi ch\u1ea1m \u0111\u1ea5t ngo\u00e0i h\u01b0\u1edbng \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c b\u1ea3o v\u1ec7.
H\u00ecnh 4.15 : Ch\u1ea1m\u0111\u1ea5t 1 pha trong m\u1ea1ng c\u00f3 trung t\u00ednh c\u00e1ch\u0111\u1ea5t
V\u00ed d\u1ee5 khi pha C c\u1ee7a\u0111\u01b0\u1eddng d\u00e2y AC b\u1ecb ch\u1ea1m\u0111\u1ea5t t\u1ea1i\u0111i\u1ec3m N\u2019 (h\u00ecnh 4.14), qua b\u1ea3o v\u1ec7
\u0111\u1eb7t tr\u00ean \u0111\u01b0\u1eddng d\u00e2y AB c\u00f3 d\u00f2ng 3I0CD do\u0111i\u1ec7n dung COD gi\u1eefa pha c\u1ee7a\u0111\u01b0\u1eddng d\u00e2y\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c b\u1ea3o
v\u1ec7 \u0111\u1ed1i v\u1edbi\u0111\u1ea5t.\u0110\u1ed3 th\u1ecb d\u00f2ng\u0111i\u1ec7n dung trong c\u00e1c pha c\u1ee7a\u0111\u01b0\u1eddng d\u00e2y AB v\u00e0 th\u00e0nh ph\u1ea7n th\u1ee9
t\u1ef1 kh\u00f4ng c\u1ee7a ch\u00fang nh\u01b0 tr\u00ean h\u00ecnh 4.16.\u0110\u1ec3 b\u1ea3o v\u1ec7 kh\u00f4ng t\u00e1c\u0111\u1ed9ng c\u1ea7n ch\u1ecdn:
IK\u0110\u2265kat . 3IoCD
(4.7)

kat: h\u1ec7 s\u1ed1 an to\u00e0n, c\u00f3 k\u1ec3 \u0111\u1ebfn\u1ea3nh h\u01b0\u1edfng c\u1ee7a d\u00f2ng dung qu\u00e1\u0111\u1ed9 v\u00e0o th\u1eddi\u0111i\u1ec3m\u0111\u1ea7u ch\u1ea1m\u0111\u1ea5t (c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 l\u1edbn h\u01a1n gi\u00e1 tr\u1ecb\u1ed5n\u0111\u1ecbnh r\u1ea5t nhi\u1ec1u).\u0110\u1ed1i v\u1edbi b\u1ea3o v\u1ec7 t\u00e1c\u0111\u1ed9ng kh\u00f4ng th\u1eddi gian c\u1ea7n ph\u1ea3i ch\u1ecdn kat = 4\u00f7 5, b\u1ea3o v\u1ec7 t\u00e1c\u0111\u1ed9ng c\u00f3 th\u1eddi gian c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 ch\u1ecdn kat b\u00e9 h\u01a1n.

Tuy nhi\u00ean ch\u1ea1m\u0111\u1ea5t th\u01b0\u1eddng l\u1eb7p\u0111i l\u1eb7p l\u1ea1i v\u00e0 r\u01a1le ph\u1ea3i ch\u1ecbu t\u00e1c\u0111\u1ed9ng c\u1ee7a nh\u1eefng xung d\u00f2ng\u0111i\u1ec7n li\u00ean ti\u1ebfp, cho n\u00ean d\u00f9 b\u1ea3o v\u1ec7 t\u00e1c\u0111\u1ed9ng c\u00f3 th\u1eddi gian c\u0169ng kh\u00f4ng th\u1ec3 ch\u1ecdn katth\u1ea5p h\u01a1n 2\u00f7 2,5.

II.2. Th\u1eddi gian l\u00e0m vi\u1ec7c:

Khi b\u1ea3o v\u1ec7 t\u00e1c\u0111\u1ed9ng b\u00e1o t\u00edn hi\u1ec7u th\u00ec kh\u00f4ng c\u1ea7n ch\u1ecdn th\u1eddi gian l\u00e0m vi\u1ec7c theo\u0111i\u1ec1u ki\u1ec7n ch\u1ecdn l\u1ecdc, b\u1ea3o v\u1ec7 th\u01b0\u1eddng l\u00e0m vi\u1ec7c kh\u00f4ng th\u1eddi gian. C\u00f3 m\u1ed9t s\u1ed1 b\u1ea3o v\u1ec7 theo\u0111i\u1ec1u ki\u1ec7n an to\u00e0n c\u1ea7n ph\u1ea3i t\u00e1c\u0111\u1ed9ng kh\u00f4ng c\u00f3 th\u1eddi gian\u0111i c\u1eaft ch\u1ea1m\u0111\u1ea5t, c\u00f2n l\u1ea1i n\u00f3i chung b\u1ea3o v\u1ec7 t\u00e1c

\u0111\u1ed9ng \u0111i c\u1eaftv\u1edbi th\u1eddi gian \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c ch\u1ecdn theo nguy\u00ean t\u1eafc b\u1eadc thang.

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