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Chuong 8

Chuong 8

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Published by: api-3768589 on Oct 18, 2008
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03/18/2014

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Ch\u01b0\u01a1ng 8 : T\u1ef0 \u0110\u1ed8NG\u0110\u00d3NG NGU\u1ed2N D\u1ef0
TR\u1eee (T\u0110D)
I. \u00dd NGH\u0128A C\u1ee6A T\u0110D:
S\u01a1 \u0111\u1ed3 n\u1ed1i\u0111i\u1ec7n c\u1ee7a h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng\u0111i\u1ec7n c\u1ea7n\u0111\u1ea3m b\u1ea3o\u0111\u1ed9 tin c\u1eady cung c\u1ea5p cho c\u00e1c h\u1ed9 ti\u00eau th\u1ee5
\u0111i\u1ec7n. S\u01a1 \u0111\u1ed3 cung c\u1ea5p t\u1eeb hai hay nhi\u1ec1u ngu\u1ed3n \u0111i\u1ec7n \u0111\u1ea3mb\u1ea3o \u0111\u1ed9 tin c\u1eady cao, v\u00ec c\u1eafts\u1ef1c\u1ed1

m\u1ed9t ngu\u1ed3n kh\u00f4ng l\u00e0m cho h\u1ed9 ti\u00eau th\u1ee5 b\u1ecb m\u1ea5t\u0111i\u1ec7n.
D\u00f9 vi\u1ec7c cung c\u1ea5p cho h\u1ed9 ti\u00eau th\u1ee5 t\u1eeb nhi\u1ec1u ph\u00eda c\u00f3 \u01b0u \u0111i\u1ec3m r\u00f5 r\u00e0ng nh\u01b0v\u1eady nh\u01b0ng ph\u1ea7n
l\u1edbn c\u00e1c tr\u1ea1m c\u00f3 hai ngu\u1ed3n cung c\u1ea5p tr\u1edf l\u00ean\u0111\u1ec1u l\u00e0m vi\u1ec7c theo s\u01a1 \u0111\u1ed3 m\u1ed9t ngu\u1ed3n cung c\u1ea5p.
T\u1ef1 d\u00f9ng c\u1ee7a nh\u00e0 m\u00e1y\u0111i\u1ec7n l\u00e0 m\u1ed9t v\u00ed d\u1ee5.
C\u00e1ch th\u1ef1c hi\u1ec7n s\u01a1 \u0111\u1ed3 nh\u01b0 tr\u00ean s\u1ebd \u00edt tin c\u1eady nh\u01b0ng\u0111\u01a1n gi\u1ea3n h\u01a1n v\u00e0 trong nhi\u1ec1u tr\u01b0\u1eddng h\u1ee3p
l\u00e0m gi\u1ea3m d\u00f2ng ng\u1eafn m\u1ea1ch, gi\u1ea3m t\u1ed5n th\u1ea5t\u0111i\u1ec7n n\u0103ng trong MBA,\u0111\u01a1n gi\u1ea3n b\u1ea3o v\u1ec7 r\u01a1le...
Khi ph\u00e1t tri\u1ec3n m\u1ea1ng\u0111i\u1ec7n, vi\u1ec7c cung c\u1ea5p t\u1eeb m\u1ed9t ph\u00eda th\u01b0\u1eddng l\u00e0 gi\u1ea3i ph\u00e1p\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c l\u1ef1a ch\u1ecdn
v\u00ec nh\u1eefng thi\u1ebft b\u1ecb\u0111i\u1ec7n v\u00e0 b\u1ea3o v\u1ec7\u0111\u00e3\u0111\u1eb7t tr\u01b0\u1edbc\u0111\u00f3 kh\u00f4ng cho ph\u00e9p th\u1ef1c hi\u1ec7n s\u1ef1 l\u00e0m vi\u1ec7c
song song c\u1ee7a c\u00e1c ngu\u1ed3n cung c\u1ea5p.
Nh\u01b0\u1ee3c\u0111i\u1ec3m c\u1ee7a vi\u1ec7c cung c\u1ea5p t\u1eeb
m\u1ed9t ph\u00eda l\u00e0 c\u1eaft s\u1ef1 c\u1ed1 ngu\u1ed3n l\u00e0m
vi\u1ec7c s\u1ebd l\u00e0m ng\u1eebng cung c\u1ea5p cho
h\u1ed9 ti\u00eau th\u1ee5. Kh\u1eafc ph\u1ee5c b\u1eb1ng c\u00e1ch

\u0111\u00f3ng nhanh ngu\u1ed3n d\u1ef1tr\u1eefhay
\u0111\u00f3ng m\u00e1y c\u1eaft m\u00e0 \u1edf \u0111\u00f3 th\u1ef1c hi\u1ec7n

vi\u1ec7c ph\u00e2n chia m\u1ea1ng\u0111i\u1ec7n.\u0110\u1ec3
th\u1ef1c hi\u1ec7n thao t\u00e1c n\u00e0y ng\u01b0\u1eddi ta s\u1eed
d\u1ee5ng thi\u1ebft b\u1ecbT\u1ef0 \u0110\u1ed8NG\u0110\u00d3NG

NGU\u1ed2N D\u1ef0 TR\u1eee (T\u0110D).
H\u00ecnh 8.1 : C\u00e1c nguy\u00ean t\u1eafc th\u1ef1c hi\u1ec7n T\u0110D
II. Y\u00eau c\u1ea7u c\u01a1 b\u1ea3n\u0111\u1ed1i v\u1edbi thi\u1ebft b\u1ecb T\u0110D:

T\u1ea5t c\u1ea3 c\u00e1c thi\u1ebft b\u1ecb T\u0110D c\u1ea7n ph\u1ea3i th\u1ecfa m\u00e3n nh\u1eefng y\u00eau c\u1ea7u c\u01a1 b\u1ea3n sau\u0111\u00e2y:
1. S\u01a1 \u0111\u1ed3 T\u0110D kh\u00f4ng\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c t\u00e1c\u0111\u1ed9ng tr\u01b0\u1edbc khi m\u00e1y c\u1eaft c\u1ee7a ngu\u1ed3n l\u00e0m vi\u1ec7c b\u1ecb c\u1eaft ra\u0111\u1ec3
tr\u00e1nh\u0111\u00f3ng ngu\u1ed3n d\u1ef1 tr\u1eef v\u00e0o khi ngu\u1ed3n l\u00e0m vi\u1ec7c ch\u01b0a b\u1ecb c\u1eaft ra. V\u00ed d\u1ee5 trong s\u01a1 \u0111\u1ed3 h\u00ecnh
8.1a, khi ng\u1eafn m\u1ea1ch tr\u00ean\u0111\u01b0\u1eddng d\u00e2y AC th\u00ec b\u1ea3o v\u1ec7 \u0111\u01b0\u1eddng d\u00e2y ch\u1ec9 c\u1eaft 1MC c\u00f2n 2MC v\u1eabn

122
\u0111\u00f3ng, n\u1ebfu T\u0110D t\u00e1c \u0111\u1ed9ng \u0111\u00f3ng \u0111\u01b0\u1eddng d\u00e2y d\u1ef1tr\u1eef BC th\u00ec c\u00f3 th\u1ec3ng\u1eafn m\u1ea1ch s\u1ebdl\u1ea1i xu\u1ea5t

hi\u1ec7n.
2. S\u01a1 \u0111\u1ed3 T\u0110D ph\u1ea3i t\u00e1c\u0111\u1ed9ng khi m\u1ea5t\u0111i\u1ec7n \u00e1p tr\u00ean thanh g\u00f3p h\u1ed9 ti\u00eau th\u1ee5 v\u00ec b\u1ea5t c\u1ee9 l\u00ed do g\u00ec,
ch\u1eb3ng h\u1ea1n nh\u01b0 khi c\u1eaft s\u1ef1 c\u1ed1, c\u1eaft nh\u1ea7m hay c\u1eaft t\u1ef1 ph\u00e1t m\u00e1y c\u1eaft c\u1ee7a ngu\u1ed3n l\u00e0m vi\u1ec7c, c\u0169ng
nh\u01b0 khi m\u1ea5t\u0111i\u1ec7n \u00e1p tr\u00ean thanh g\u00f3p c\u1ee7a ngu\u1ed3n l\u00e0m vi\u1ec7c. C\u0169ng cho ph\u00e9p\u0111\u00f3ng ngu\u1ed3n d\u1ef1
tr\u1eef khi ng\u1eafn m\u1ea1ch tr\u00ean thanh g\u00f3p c\u1ee7a h\u1ed9 ti\u00eau th\u1ee5.
3. Thi\u1ebft b\u1ecb T\u0110D ch\u1ec9 \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c t\u00e1c\u0111\u1ed9ng m\u1ed9t l\u1ea7n\u0111\u1ec3 tr\u00e1nh\u0111\u00f3ng ngu\u1ed3n d\u1ef1 tr\u1eef nhi\u1ec1u l\u1ea7n v\u00e0o
ng\u1eafn m\u1ea1ch t\u1ed3n t\u1ea1i.
V\u00ed d\u1ee5, n\u1ebfu ng\u1eafn m\u1ea1ch tr\u00ean thanh g\u00f3p C (h\u00ecnh 8.1a) th\u00ec khi T\u0110D\u0111\u00f3ng 4MC, thi\u1ebft b\u1ecb b\u1ea3o
v\u1ec7 r\u01a1le l\u1ea1i t\u00e1c\u0111\u1ed9ng c\u1eaft 4MC,\u0111i\u1ec1u\u0111\u00f3 ch\u1ee9ng t\u1ecf ng\u1eafn m\u1ea1ch v\u1eabn c\u00f2n t\u1ed3n t\u1ea1i, do v\u1eady kh\u00f4ng
n\u00ean cho T\u0110D t\u00e1c\u0111\u1ed9ng l\u1ea7n th\u1ee9 2.
4.\u0110\u1ec3 gi\u1ea3m th\u1eddi gian ng\u1eebng cung c\u1ea5p\u0111i\u1ec7n, vi\u1ec7c\u0111\u00f3ng ngu\u1ed3n d\u1ef1 tr\u1eef c\u1ea7n ph\u1ea3i nhanh nh\u1ea5t
c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c ngay sau khi c\u1eaft ngu\u1ed3n l\u00e0m vi\u1ec7c.
Th\u1eddi gian m\u1ea5t\u0111i\u1ec7n tm\u0111 ph\u1ee5 thu\u1ed9c v\u00e0o c\u00e1c y\u1ebfu t\u1ed1 sau:

a)

tm\u0111< ttk\u0111
ttk\u0111 : kho\u1ea3ng th\u1eddi gian l\u1edbn nh\u1ea5t t\u1eeb l\u00fac m\u1ea5t\u0111i\u1ec7n\u0111\u1ebfn khi\u0111\u00f3ng ngu\u1ed3n d\u1ef1 tr\u1eef m\u00e0 c\u00e1c\u0111\u1ed9ng
c\u01a1 n\u1ed1i v\u00e0o thanh g\u00f3p h\u1ed9 ti\u00eau th\u1ee5 c\u00f2n c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 t\u1ef1 kh\u1edfi\u0111\u1ed9ng.

b)

tm\u0111> tkh\u1eed ion
tkh\u1eed ion : th\u1eddi gian c\u1ea7n thi\u1ebft\u0111\u1ec3 kh\u1eed m\u00f4i tr\u01b0\u1eddng b\u1ecb ion h\u00f3a do h\u1ed3 quang t\u1ea1i ch\u1ed5 ng\u1eafn m\u1ea1ch
(tr\u01b0\u1eddng h\u1ee3p ng\u1eafn m\u1ea1ch tr\u00ean thanh g\u00f3p C - h\u00ecnh 8.1a)
5.\u0110\u1ec3 t\u0103ng t\u1ed1c\u0111\u1ed9 c\u1eaft ngu\u1ed3n d\u1ef1 tr\u1eef khi ng\u1eafn m\u1ea1ch t\u1ed3n t\u1ea1i, c\u1ea7n t\u0103ng t\u1ed1c\u0111\u1ed9 t\u00e1c\u0111\u1ed9ng c\u1ee7a
b\u1ea3o v\u1ec7 ngu\u1ed3n d\u1ef1 tr\u1eef sau khi thi\u1ebft b\u1ecb T\u0110D t\u00e1c\u0111\u1ed9ng.\u0110i\u1ec1u n\u00e0y\u0111\u1eb7c bi\u1ec7t quan tr\u1ecdng khi h\u1ed9
ti\u00eau th\u1ee5 b\u1ecb m\u1ea5t ngu\u1ed3n cung c\u1ea5p\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c thi\u1ebft b\u1ecb T\u0110D n\u1ed1i v\u1edbi ngu\u1ed3n d\u1ef1 tr\u1eef \u0111ang mang t\u1ea3i.
C\u1eaft nhanh ng\u1eafn m\u1ea1ch l\u00fac n\u00e0y l\u00e0 c\u1ea7n thi\u1ebft\u0111\u1ec3 ng\u0103n ng\u1eeba vi\u1ec7c ph\u00e1 h\u1ee7y s\u1ef1 l\u00e0m vi\u1ec7c b\u00ecnh
th\u01b0\u1eddng c\u1ee7a ngu\u1ed3n d\u1ef1 tr\u1eef\u0111ang l\u00e0m vi\u1ec7c v\u1edbi c\u00e1c h\u1ed9 ti\u00eau th\u1ee5 kh\u00e1c.

III. T\u0110D\u0111\u01b0\u1eddng d\u00e2y:
III.1. S\u01a1 \u0111\u1ed3:
Trong ch\u1ebf \u0111\u1ed9 v\u1eadn h\u00e0nh b\u00ecnh th\u01b0\u1eddng,\u0111\u01b0\u1eddng d\u00e2y AC l\u00e0m vi\u1ec7c (1MC, 2MC\u0111\u00f3ng),\u0111\u01b0\u1eddng
d\u00e2y BC d\u1ef1 tr\u1eef (3MC\u0111\u00f3ng, 4MC m\u1edf). R\u01a1le RGT c\u00f3\u0111i\u1ec7n (h\u00ecnh 8.7), ti\u1ebfp\u0111i\u1ec3m c\u1ee7a n\u00f3
\u0111\u00f3ng. N\u1ebfu v\u00ec m\u1ed9t l\u00ed do n\u00e0o \u0111\u00f3 thanh g\u00f3p C m\u1ea5t \u0111i\u1ec7n (v\u00ed d\u1ee5 do ng\u1eafn m\u1ea1ch tr\u00ean \u0111\u01b0\u1eddng d\u00e2y

AC, do thao t\u00e1c nh\u1ea7m....), ti\u1ebfp\u0111i\u1ec3m c\u1ee7a c\u00e1c r\u01a1le RU<, RU> s\u1ebd\u0111\u00f3ng m\u1ea1ch r\u01a1le th\u1eddi gian RT (\u0111\u01b0\u1eddng d\u00e2y d\u1ef1 tr\u1eef BC\u0111ang c\u00f3\u0111i\u1ec7n). Sau m\u1ed9t th\u1eddi gian ch\u1eadm tr\u1ec5 do y\u00eau c\u1ea7u ch\u1ecdn l\u1ecdc c\u1ee7a b\u1ea3o v\u1ec7 r\u01a1le, ti\u1ebfp\u0111i\u1ec3m RT\u0111\u00f3ng l\u1ea1i. Cu\u1ed9n c\u1eaft CC c\u1ee7a m\u00e1y c\u1eaft c\u00f3\u0111i\u1ec7n, m\u00e1y c\u1eaft 2MC m\u1edf ra. Ti\u1ebfp\u0111i\u1ec3m ph\u1ee5 2MC3 \u0111\u00f3ng, cho d\u00f2ng \u0111i\u1ec7n ch\u1ea1y qua cu\u1ed9n \u0111\u00f3ng C\u0110c\u1ee7a m\u00e1y c\u1eaft 4MC v\u00e0\u0111\u01b0\u1eddng d\u00e2y d\u1ef1 tr\u1eef BC\u0111 \u01b0\u1ee3c\u0111\u00f3ng v\u00e0o\u0111\u1ec3 cung c\u1ea5p cho c\u00e1c h\u1ed9 ti\u00eau th\u1ee5.

III.2. T\u00ednh to\u00e1n tham s\u1ed1 c\u1ee7a c\u00e1c ph\u1ea7n t\u1eed trong s\u01a1 \u0111\u1ed3:
III.2.1. Th\u1eddi gian c\u1ee7a r\u01a1le RT:

Khi ng\u1eafn m\u1ea1ch t\u1ea1i\u0111i\u1ec3m N1 ho\u1eb7c N2 (h\u00ecnh 8.8),\u0111i\u1ec7n \u00e1p d\u01b0 tr\u00ean thanh g\u00f3p C c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 gi\u1ea3m xu\u1ed1ng r\u1ea5t th\u1ea5p l\u00e0m cho c\u00e1c r\u01a1le\u0111i\u1ec7n \u00e1p RU< kh\u1edfi\u0111\u1ed9ng. Mu\u1ed1n T\u0110D tr\u00e1nh t\u00e1c\u0111\u1ed9ng trong tr\u01b0\u1eddng h\u1ee3p n\u00e0y c\u1ea7n ph\u1ea3i ch\u1ecdn th\u1eddi gian c\u1ee7a r\u01a1le RT l\u1edbn h\u01a1n th\u1eddi gian l\u00e0m vi\u1ec7c c\u1ee7a c\u00e1c b\u1ea3o v\u1ec7 \u0111\u1eb7t t\u1ea1i m\u00e1y c\u1eaft 7MC v\u00e0 9MC:

123
tRT =tBVA +\u2206 t
(8.1)
tRT = tBVC +\u2206 t

(8.2)
trong\u0111\u00f3:
tBVA, tBVC : th\u1eddi gian l\u00e0m vi\u1ec7c l\u1edbn nh\u1ea5t c\u1ee7a c\u00e1c b\u1ea3o v\u1ec7 ph\u1ea7n t\u1eed n\u1ed1i v\u00e0o thanh g\u00f3p A v\u00e0
thanh g\u00f3p C.

\u2206t : b\u1eadc ch\u1ecdn l\u1ecdc v\u1ec1 th\u1eddi gian, b\u1eb1ng (0,3 \u00f7 0,5 sec).

Th\u1eddi gian c\u1ee7a r\u01a1le RT\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c ch\u1ecdn b\u1eb1ng tr\u1ecb s\u1ed1 l\u1edbn h\u01a1n khi t\u00ednh theo c\u00e1c bi\u1ec3u th\u1ee9c (8.1) v\u00e0
(8.2). Tuy nhi\u00ean, th\u1eddi gian n\u00e0y c\u00e0ng nh\u1ecf th\u00ec th\u1eddi gian ng\u1eebng cung c\u1ea5p\u0111i\u1ec7n cho c\u00e1c h\u1ed9
ti\u00eau th\u1ee5 c\u00e0ng b\u00e9, v\u00ec v\u1eady khi t\u00ednh ch\u1ecdn c\u1ea7n ph\u1ea3i\u0111\u1eb7t\u0111i\u1ec1u ki\u1ec7n th\u1ebf n\u00e0o \u0111\u1ec3th\u1eddi gian c\u1ee7ar\u01a1le
RT l\u00e0 nh\u1ecf nh\u1ea5t c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c.

H\u00ecnh 8.7 : S\u01a1 \u0111\u1ed3 thi\u1ebft b\u1ecb T\u0110D\u0111\u01b0\u1eddng d\u00e2y
III.2.2. Th\u1eddi gian c\u1ee7a r\u01a1le RGT:
\u0110\u1ec3 \u0111\u1ea3mb\u1ea3o thi\u1ebft b\u1ecbT\u0110D t\u00e1c \u0111\u1ed9ng \u0111\u00f3ng m\u00e1y c\u1eaft 4MC ch\u1ec9m\u1ed9t l\u1ea7n, c\u1ea7n ch\u1ecdn:
tRGT= t\u0110(4MC)+ td\u1ef1 tr\u1eef

(8.3)
trong\u0111\u00f3:
t\u0110(4MC) : th\u1eddi gian\u0111\u00f3ng c\u1ee7a m\u00e1y c\u1eaft 4MC.

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